U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 81 - 96 of 102012 results

Description

Lenvatinib, developed by Eisai Co., is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor that inhibits the kinase activities of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR1 (FLT1), VEGFR2 (KDR), and VEGFR3 (FLT4). Lenvatinib also inhibits other RTKs that have been implicated in pathogenic angiogenesis, tumor growth, and cancer progression in addition to their normal cellular functions, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4; the platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα), KIT, and RET. These receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) located in the cell membrane play a central role in the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in the normal regulation of cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis and differentiation, and in pathogenic angiogenesis, lymphogenesis, tumour growth and cancer progression. In particular, VEGF has been identified as a crucial regulator of both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis and increased expression of VEGF is associated with a poor prognosis in many types of cancers. Lenvatinib is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine (RAI)-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer. Most patients with thyroid cancer have a very good prognosis with treatment (98% 5 year survival rate) involving surgery and hormone therapy. However, for patients with RAI-refractory thyroid cancer, treatment options are limited and the prognosis is poor, leading to a push for the development of more targeted therapies such as lenvatinib. Lenvatinib is marketed under the trade name Lenvima, it is indicated for the treatment of patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.

PERINDOPRIL ARGININE

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Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA205003 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 61894-010
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA206038 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 51167-809
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Description

Lumacaftor (VX-809) is an investigational drug developed by the Massachusetts-based pharmaceutical company Vertex for the treatment of patients who suffer from cystic fibrosis (CF) and have the F508del mutation in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Currently, lumacaftor is approved by the U.S. FDA as a combined oral treatment for CF in combination with Kalydeco (ivacaftor). Lumacaftor is commercialized by Vertex under the brand name Orkambi, and Kalydeco was approved in the United States in 2012. The lumacaftor/Kalydeco combo was approved by the FDA in July 2015 for patients ages 12 and older, while the use of lumacaftor alone is still being studied by Vertex. The mechanism of action of lumacaftor is based on the interference with the F508 CFTR. The chronic disease is caused by a mutation in the gene that controls the salt transportation in the cells, resulting in thick, sticky mucus in the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. To address that genetic defect, lumacaftor helps correct the mutated genes with a novel therapeutic approach. Both lumicaftor and kalydeco work by correcting the misfolded CFTR protein, the root cause of the F508del mutation, which led to the approval of the combined treatment by the FDA. However, while kalydeco alone is also approved by the FDA, the use of lumacftor alone has not yet been approved.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA018321 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 69945-091
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Targets:

Conditions:

Description

Skeletal imaging, radionuclide—Technetium Tc 99m oxidronate is indicated as a skeletal imaging agent in adults and children to delineate areas of abnormal osteogenesis, such as those that occur with metastatic bone disease, Paget's disease, arthritic disease, osteomyelitis, and fractures. Technetium Tc 99m oxidronate injection is a radiopharmaceutical. Exact mechanism is not known. It is generally accepted that technetium Tc 99m oxidronate localizes on the surface of hydroxyapatite crystals by a process termed chemisorption, with blood flow and/or blood concentration being most important in the delivery of the agent to sites of uptake. Visualization of osseous lesions is possible since skeletal uptake of technetium Tc 99m oxidronate is altered in areas of abnormal osteogenesis. Rapidly distributed in and cleared from blood after intravenous administration, with about half the dose normally accumulating in the skeleton within 3 to 4 hours after injection. May also locate within infarcted myocardial cells or other regions of soft tissue necrosis or calcification. Minimal uptake by soft-tissue organs, except calcified cartilage, blood vessels, and kidneys. TechneScan HDP exhibits its greatest affinity for areas of altered osteogenesis and actively metabolizing bone. Some hypersensitivity reactions, as well as nausea and vomiting, have been infrequently associated with Technetium Tc 99m Oxidronate.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA205750 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 45043-001
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Description

Ursocholic acid (UCA) is the 7 beta epimer of the naturally occurring primary bile acid, cholic acid. Cholic acid (CA) administration does not reduce biliary cholesterol saturation unless its 7 alpha dehydroxylation to deoxycholic acid (DCA) is prevented by concomitant antibiotic treatment. It was shown, that UCA caused diarrhoea and hypercholesterolemia, had only a modest effect on biliary cholesterol saturation and thus UCA was not able to replace ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acid for medical treatment of gallstones. In addition, as discovered, during ursocholic acid therapy the synthesis of primary bile acids continued whereas the formation of secondary bile acids was greatly increase.

Description

Deoxycholic acid is a a bile acid which emulsifies and solubilizes dietary fats in the intestine, and when injected subcutaneously, it disrupts cell membranes in adipocytes and destroys fat cells in that tissue. In April 2015, deoxycholic acid was approved by the FDA for the treatment submental fat to improve aesthetic appearance and reduce facial fullness or convexity. It is marketed under the brand name Kybella by Kythera Biopharma and is the first pharmacological agent available for submental fat reduction, allowing for a safer and less invasive alternative than surgical procedures. As a bile acid, deoxycholic acid emulsifies fat in the gut. Synthetically derived deoxycholic acid, when injected, stimulates a targeted breakdown of adipose cells by disrupting the cell membrane and causing adipocytolysis. This results in an inflammatory reaction and clearing of the adipose tissue remnants by macrophages. Deoxycholic acid's actions are reduced by albumin and tissue-associated proteins, therefore its effect is limited to protein-poor subcutaneous fat tissue. Protein-rich tissues like muscle and skin are unaffected by deoxycholic acid, contributing to its safety profile. Deoxycholic acid is a cytolytic agent. The physiologic effect of deoxycholic acid is by means of decreased cell membrane integrity. Deoxycholic acid inhibits miR-21 expression in primary rat hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and increases miR-21 pro-apoptotic target programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and apoptosis. Deoxycholic acid decreases NF-κB activity, shown to represent an upstream mechanism leading to modulation of the miR-21/PDCD4 pathway.

Description

Rolapitant (VARUBI) is neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonist. Rolapitant does not have significant affinity for the NK2 or NK3 receptors. Drug is indicated in combination with other antiemetic agents in adults for the prevention of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with initial and repeat courses of emetogenic cancer chemotherapy, including, but not limited to, highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Most common adverse reactions are: neutropenia and hiccups at Cisplatin Based Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy; decreased appetite, neutropenia and dizziness at Moderately Emetogenic Chemotherapy and Combinations of Anthracycline and Cyclophosphamide. Inhibition of BCRP and P-gp by rolapitant can increase plasma concentrations of the concomitant drug and potential for adverse reactions. Strong CYP3A4 Inducers (e.g., rifampin) can significantly reduce plasma concentrations of rolapitant and decrease the efficacy of VARUBI.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207947 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 66215-604
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Description

Selexipag was approved by the United States FDA on December 22, 2015 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) to delay disease progression and reduce risk of hospitalization. PAH is a relatively rare disease with usually a poor prognosis requiring more treatment options to prolong long-term outcomes. Marketed by Actelion Pharmaceuticals under brand name Uptravi, selexipag and its active metabolite, ACT-333679 (MRE-269), act as agonists of the prostacyclin receptor to increase vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation and decrease elevated pressure in the blood vessels supplying blood to the lungs. Selexipag is a selective prostacyclin (IP, also called PGI2) receptor agonist. The key features of pulmonary arterial hypertension include a decrease in prostacyclin and prostacyclin synthase (enzyme that helps produce prostacyclin) in the lung. Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator with anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects; therefore, there is strong rationale for treatment with IP receptor agonists. Selexipag is chemically distinct as it is not PGI2 or a PGI2 analogue and has high selectivity for the IP receptor. It is metabolized by carboxylesterase 1 to yield an active metabolite (ACT-333679) that is approximately 37 times more potent than selexipag. Both selexipag and its metabolite are selective for the IP receptor over other prostanoid receptors. Selexipag is marketed under the brand name UPTRAVI, indicated for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, WHO Group I) to delay disease progression and reduce the risk of hospitalization for PAH.

Description

Panobinostat is an oral deacetylace (DAC) inhibitor approved on February 23, 2015 by the FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma. The approval was accelerated based on progression-free survival, therefore confirmatory trials by the sponsor to demonstrate clinical efficacy in multiple myeloma treatment are in progress of being conducted. Panobinostat is marketed by Novartis under the brand name Farydak. Panobinostat is a deacetylase (DAC) inhibitor. DACs, also known as histone DACs (HDAC), are responsible for regulating the acetylation of about 1750 proteins in the body; their functions are involved in many biological processes including DNA replication and repair, chromatin remodelling, transcription of genes, progression of the cell-cycle, protein degradation and cytoskeletal reorganization. In multiple myeloma, there is an overexpression of DAC proteins. Panobinostat inhibits class I (HDACs 1, 2, 3, 8), class II (HDACs 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10) and class IV (HDAC 11) proteins. Panobinostat's antitumor activity is believed to be attributed to epigenetic modulation of gene expression and inhibition of protein metabolism. Panobinostat also exhibits cytotoxic synergy with bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor concurrently used in treatment of multiple myeloma.

Description

Ixazomib (MLN2238) is an active metabolite of orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor ixazomib citrate (MLN9708), which hydrolyzes upon administration. Ixazomib citrate was approved under the name Ninlaro for the treatment of multiple myeloma in patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In vitro studies has shown that ixazomib preferentially binds and inhibits the chymotrypsin-like activity of the beta 5 subunit of the 20S proteasome.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207988 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 0310-1475
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Conditions:

Description

Lesinurad (brand name Zurampic) is a urate transporter inhibitor for treating hyperuricemia associated with gout in patients who have not achieved target serum uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. In gout patients, Lesinurad lowered serum uric acid levels and increased renal clearance and fractional excretion of uric acid. Following single and multiple oral doses of Lesinurad to gout patients, dose-dependent decreases in serum uric acid levels and increases in urinary uric acid excretion were observed. Lesinurad reduces serum uric acid levels by inhibiting the function of transporter proteins involved in uric acid reabsorption in the kidney. Lesinurad inhibited the function of two apical transporters responsible for uric acid reabsorption, uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) and organic anion transporter 4 (OAT4), with IC50 values of 7.3 and 3.7 µM, respectively. URAT1 is responsible for the majority of the reabsorption of filtered uric acid from the renal tubular lumen. OAT4 is a uric acid transporter associated with diuretic-induced hyperuricemia. Lesinurad does not interact with the uric acid reabsorption transporter SLC2A9 (Glut9), located on the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubule cell. Based on in vitro studies, lesinurad is an inhibitor of OATP1B1, OCT1, OAT1, and OAT3; however, lesinurad is not an in vivo inhibitor of these transporters. In vivo drug interaction studies indicate that lesinurad does not decrease the renal clearance of furosemide (substrate of OAT1/3), or affect the exposure of atorvastatin (substrate of OATP1B1) or metformin (substrate of OCT1). Based on in vitro studies, lesinurad has no relevant effect on P-glycoprotein.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207981 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 64842-1020
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Description

Tipiracil is a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, that used for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Tipiracil is used in combination with trifluridine as Lonsurf. Trifluridine is incorporated into DNA via phosphorylation, ultimately inhibiting cell proliferation. Tipiracil increases systemic exposure of trifluridine when coadministered. Lonsurf has recently been approved for the treatment of adult patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who are refractory to or are not considered candidates for, current standard chemotherapy and biological therapy in the EU and USA and in unresectable advanced or recurrent CRC in Japan. The approved regimen of oral twice-daily Lonsurf significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival and was associated with a significantly higher disease control rate than placebo when added to best supportive care in the multinational, pivotal phase III trial (RECOURSE) and a phase II Japanese trial. Trifluridine/tipiracil was associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, with adverse events generally being managed with dose reductions, temporary interruptions in treatment or administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor. The most common grade 3–4 adverse events (>10 %) were anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207501 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 0469-0420
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Description

Isavuconazole is an active form of isavuconazonium, a prodrug which is marketed under the name Cresemba. Isavuconazole inhibits lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase (or CYP51A1) and leads to the accumulation of ergosterol toxic precursors in the fungal cytoplasm. Isavuconazole is indicated for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and invasive mucormycosis.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207103 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 0069-0187
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Description

Palbociclib is an oral, reversible, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6 indicated in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy for their metastatic disease. CDK4 and CDK6 along with their regulatory partner cyclin D1 play a key role in regulating the G1- to S-phase cell-cycle transition via regulation of phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein. Inhibition of these proteins leads to reduced phosphorylation of Rb, inhibition of downstream signalling, and increased tumor growth arrest. Palbociclib received an accelerated approval from the Food and Drug Administration on February 3, 2015. Palbociclib is marketed under the trade name Ibrance. IBRANCE is a kinase inhibitor indicated in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced breast cancer as initial endocrine-based therapy for their metastatic disease.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA207953 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 59676-610
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Targets:


Description

Trabectedin (ET-743) is a marine alkaloid isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata. Trabectedin was approved for the treatment of liposarcoma or leiomyosarcoma (USA and Europe) and ovarian cancer (only in Europe). Trabectedin exerts its anti-cancer action by binding guanine residues in the minor groove of DNA. The binding prevents DNA from interacting with transcription factors and the reparation system and results in perturbation of the cell cycle and eventual cell death.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA206316 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 65597-202
(2015)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Description

Edoxaban (DU-176b, trade names Savaysa, Lixiana) is a selective factor Xa inhibitor reduces thrombin generation and thrombus formation and is an orally bioavailable anticoagulant drug. It was developed by Daiichi Sankyo to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following 5-10 days of initial therapy with a parenteral anticoagulant.