U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 41 - 50 of 125036 results

Lurbinectedin (PM-01183) - is a synthetic tetrahydropyrrolo [4, 3, 2-de]quinolin-8(1H)-one alkaloid analogue with potential antineoplastic activity. Lurbinectedin covalently binds to residues lying in the minor groove of DNA, which may result in delayed progression through S phase, cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and cell death. Lurbinectedin is a novel anticancer agent currently undergoing late-stage (Phase II /III) clinical evaluation in platinum-resistant ovarian, BRCA1/2-mutated breast and small-cell lung cancer. Lurbinectedin is structurally related to trabectedin and it inhibits active transcription and the DNA repair machinery in tumour cells.
treatment of falciparum malaria since 1990. It is a potent antimalarial drug that can reduce parasitaemia by 90% within 24 h of administration. Sodium artesunate was first isolated in China, it is a water soluble antimalaria used clinically in China.
Bempedoic acid (also known as ETC-1002) is a novel investigational drug being developed for the treatment of dyslipidemia, hypercholesterolemia and other cardio-metabolic risk factors. The hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and glucose-lowering properties of ETC-1002, characterized in preclinical disease models, are believed to be due to dual inhibition of sterol and fatty acid synthesis and enhanced mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation. Investigations into the mechanism of action revealed that bempedoic acid-free acid activates AMP-activated protein kinase in a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase β-independent and liver kinase β-1-dependent manner, without detectable changes in adenylate energy charge. In the liver, bempedoic acid is also converted to a coenzyme A (CoA) derivative (ETC-1002-CoA )which directly inhibits ATP citrate lyase (ACL), a key enzyme that supplies a substrate for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the liver. Inhibition of ACL by ETC-1002-CoA results in reduced cholesterol synthesis and upregulation of LDL receptor activity in the liver. This promotes the removal of LDL-C from the blood.
KX-01 is a dual inhibitor of Src kinase and tubulin polymerization. KX01 promotes the induction of p53, G2/M arrest of proliferating cell populations and subsequent apoptosis via the stimulation of Caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. The drug was developed by Kinex Pharmaceuticals and reached phase II of clinical trials for the treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Actinic Keratosis. KX-01 demonstrated good in vitro pofile against different cancer cell lines with IC50 in nanomolar range.
Relugolix (TAK-385) is an orally active nonpeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that binds to human GnRH receptors with subnanomolar affinity. Relugolix was demonstrated to act as a classic competitive antagonist of GnRH binding, but the exact molecular mechanism of that antagonism remains unknown. This drug is being developed as a treatment for various sex hormone related disorders. Clinical trials have been conducted to study safety and efficacy of relugolix as a treatment in endometriosis, uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths of the uterus), and prostate cancer. Two phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of Relugolix in patients with uterine fibroids were completed in 2019. No serious adverse events were reported.
Amisulpride, a benzamide derivative, shows a unique therapeutic profile being atypical antipsychotic. At low doses, it enhances dopaminergic neurotransmission by preferentially blocking presynaptic dopamine D2/D3 autoreceptors. At higher doses, amisupride antagonises postsynaptic dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, preferentially in the limbic system rather than the striatum, thereby reducing dopaminergic transmission. In addition its antagonism at serotonin 5-HT7 receptors likely underlies the antidepressant actions. Amisulpride is approved for clinical use in treating schizophrenia in a number of European countries and also for treating dysthymia, a mild form of depression, in Italy.
Allopregnanolone is a neurosteroid metabolite of progesterone. It is an allosteric modulator of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-A) receptors on neural stem cells and other cell types in the brain. Allopregnanolone has effects similar to those of other positive allosteric modulators of the GABA action at GABAA receptor such as the benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity. A solution of allopregnanolone, SAGE-547 is an intravenous allosteric modulator of both synaptic and extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)receptors. It's believed that allopregnanolone is effective as an anticonvulsant when prolonged seizure activity has become resistant to benzodiazepine treatment. Under the names brexanolone and SAGE-547, allopregnanolone is under development by SAGE Therapeutics as an intravenously administered drug for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus, postpartum depression, and essential tremor. Allopregnanolone is in phase III trials for the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) and postpartum depression.
ODM-201 (also known as BAY-1841788) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen, specifically, a full and high-affinity antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), that is under development by Orion and Bayer HealthCare for the treatment of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). ODM-201 appears to negligibly cross the blood-brain-barrier. This is beneficial due to the reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects from off-target GABAA receptor inhibition that tends to occur in non-steroidal antiandrogens that are structurally similar to enzalutamide. Moreover, in accordance with its lack of central penetration, ODM-201 does not seem to increase testosterone levels in mice or humans, unlike other non-steroidal antiandrogens. Another advantage is that ODM-201 has been found to block the activity of all tested/well-known mutant ARs in prostate cancer, including the recently-identified clinically-relevant F876L mutation. ODM-201 has been studied in phase I and phase II clinical trials and has thus far been found to be effective and well-tolerated, with the most commonly reported side effects including fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea. No seizures have been observed.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Ubrogepant, a small molecule drug, is being developed by Merck & Co for the treatment of migraine. The calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP) antagonist is administered orally as a film coated tablet. Ubrogepant is a competitive antagonist with high affinity, potency, and selectivity for the human CGRP receptor. In the four clinical studies (ACHIEVE I, ACHIEVE II, UBR-MD-04 and 3110-105-002) ubrogepant demonstrated efficacy, safety and tolerability in the acute treatment of migraine among a broad patient population, including those who had an insufficient response to a triptan or those patients in whom triptans were contraindicated, as well as in patients who had moderate to severe CV risk profile.