U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 31 - 40 of 107353 results

Gilteritinib, also known as ASP2215, is a potent FLT3/AXL inhibitor, which showed potent antileukemic activity against AML with either or both FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835 mutations. In in vitro, among the 78 tyrosine kinases tested, Gilteritinib inhibited FLT3, LTK, ALK, and AXL kinases by over 50% at 1 nM with an IC50 value of 0.29 nM for FLT3, approximately 800-fold more potent than for c-KIT, the inhibition of which is linked to a potential risk of myelosuppression. Gilteritinib inhibited the growth of MV4-11 cells, which harbor FLT3-ITD, with an IC50 value of 0.92 nM, accompanied with inhibition of pFLT3, pAKT, pSTAT5, pERK, and pS6. Gilteritinib decreased tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells. In previous preclinical studies, gilteritinib has demonstrated superior antitumor effects when given in combination with AraC and either DNR or IDR compared with combination chemotherapy. In November 2018, the FDA approved gilteritinib for treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a FLT3 mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test.
Status:
First approved in 2018

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Ivosidenib (AG-120) is an inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) This experimental drug inhibits mutant IDH1, leading to increased differentiation and decreased proliferation in IDH1 positive tumors and thus is thought to be promising for the treatment of IDH1-mutated tumors. In vivo treatment with AG-120 of TF-1 cells, primary human AML patient samples expressing mutant IDH1 and primary human blast cells cultured ex vivo showed that AG-120 is effective at lowering 2-HG levels and restoring cellular differentiation. It showed promising results in a phase I trial in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and is being evaluated in Phase III in previously-treated subjects with nonresectable or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with an IDH1 mutation.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
SYMDEKO by Vertex
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Tezacaftor (VX-661) is an investigational compound developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals to treat cystic fibrosis (CF). It is an oral corrector of the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and is similar to lumacaftor, another N-aryl-1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide derivative developed by Vertex. Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in CFTR gene, which encodes an epithelial chloride channel. The most common mutant Δ508CFTR is a misfolded protein that does not reach the cell membrane. VX-661 corrects trafficking of Δ508CFTR and partially restores chloride channel activity. In vitro, a combination of VX-661 and ivacaftor, an FDA approved in 2012 CFTR potentiator which increases the time the CFTR channel is open, allowing chloride ions to flow through the CFTR proteins on the surface of epithelial cells, resulted in greater CFTR activity compared with VX-661 alone. In February 2012, a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of VX-661 was initiated in CF patients who were homozygous or heterozygous for the F508del mutation. There is an ongoing Vertex Phase 3 development program of VX-661 in combination with ivacaftor which includes four studies on CF patients 1) with two copies of the F508del mutation, 2) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function, 3) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function gating defect in the CFTR protein and 4) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in minimal CFTR function.
Cannabidiol is the major nonpsychoactive ingredient in cannabis. Cannabidiol demonstrates a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties. Exact mechanism of action of cannabidiol is not known, but may include effects on the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55; the transient receptor potential of vanilloid type-1 channel; the 5-HT1a receptor; and the α3 glycine receptors. GW Pharmaceuticals successfully developed the world’s first prescription medicine derived from the cannabis plant, Sativex® (buccal spray containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol) now approved in over 29 countries outside of the United States for the treatment of spasticity due to Multiple Sclerosis. GW Pharmaceuticals is developing Epidiolex® (a liquid formulation of pure plant-derived cannabidiol) for certain rare and severe early-onset, drug-resistant epilepsy syndromes.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
TPOXX by ViroPharma
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Tecovirimat (ST-246) is a low-molecular-weight compound (molecular weight = 376), that is potent (concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% = 0.010 microM), selective (concentration of compound that inhibited cell viability by 50% = >40 microM), and active against multiple orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, monkeypox, camelpox, cowpox, ectromelia (mousepox), and variola viruses. The antiviral activity is specific for orthopoxviruses and the compound does not inhibit the replication of other RNA- and DNA-containing viruses or inhibit cell proliferation at concentrations of compound that are antiviral. ST-246 targets vaccinia virus p37, a viral protein required for envelopment and secretion of extracellular forms of virus. The compound is orally bioavailable and protects multiple animal species from lethal orthopoxvirus challenge. rug substance and drug product processes have been developed and commercial scale batches have been produced using Good Manufacturing Processes (GMP). Human phase I clinical trials have shown that ST-246 is safe and well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. Based on the results of the clinical evaluation, once a day dosing should provide plasma drug exposure in the range predicted to be antiviral based on data from efficacy studies in animal models of orthopoxvirus disease.
Stiripentol is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. It recently proved to increase the GABAergic transmission in vitro in an experimental model of immature rat. Clinical studies were based on the fact that STP also acts as an inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 in vivo in epileptic patients. Side effects are largely due to the increase in plasma concentrations of other anticonvulsants and can be reduced by lowering the dose of those drugs. Nausea and vomiting are particularly noted when used in combination with sodium valproate. It appears to increase the potency of phenobarbital, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, clobazam and diazepam.
Elcometrine (Segesterone acetate, Nestorone) is a steroidal progestin which is used as a hormonal contraceptive and as a treatment of endometriosis. Upon oral administration, Nestorone undergoes rapid metabolism and inactivation. Several clinical trials have been performed with Nestorone administered via subdermal implants.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
TALZENNA by LEAD Therapeutics
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



BMN-673 (8R,9S) is the (8R,9S) enantiomer of BMN-673, known as talazoparib. BMN 673 is a novel inhibitor of nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) with potential antineoplastic activity.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
MOXIDECTIN by Wyeth
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

(23Z)-Moxidectin is the Z-isomer of the drug Moxidectin. The compound is formed as an impurity during the process of synthesis and is difficult to remove.
Larotrectinib (previously known as ARRY-470 and LOXO-101) is a potent, oral and selective investigational new drug in clinical development for the treatment of patients with cancers that harbor abnormalities involving the tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKs). Larotrectinib is in phase II clinical trials for the treatment patients with solid tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and for the pediatric patients with advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.