U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 21 - 30 of 2553 results

Gilteritinib, also known as ASP2215, is a potent FLT3/AXL inhibitor, which showed potent antileukemic activity against AML with either or both FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835 mutations. In in vitro, among the 78 tyrosine kinases tested, Gilteritinib inhibited FLT3, LTK, ALK, and AXL kinases by over 50% at 1 nM with an IC50 value of 0.29 nM for FLT3, approximately 800-fold more potent than for c-KIT, the inhibition of which is linked to a potential risk of myelosuppression. Gilteritinib inhibited the growth of MV4-11 cells, which harbor FLT3-ITD, with an IC50 value of 0.92 nM, accompanied with inhibition of pFLT3, pAKT, pSTAT5, pERK, and pS6. Gilteritinib decreased tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells. In previous preclinical studies, gilteritinib has demonstrated superior antitumor effects when given in combination with AraC and either DNR or IDR compared with combination chemotherapy. In November 2018, the FDA approved gilteritinib for treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a FLT3 mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test.
Status:
First approved in 2018

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Plazomicin is a novel aminoglycoside antibiotic that binds to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, thus inhibiting protein synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Plazomicin displays a broad spectrum of activity against aerobic gram-negative bacteria including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and organisms with aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. Plazomicin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is via modification of the ribosomal binding site due to expression of 16S rRNA methyltransferases. ZEMDRI (plazomicin) injection for intravenous use is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years of age or older with Complicated Urinary Tract Infections (cUTI) including Pyelonephritis.
Elagolix (ABT-620) is an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist being studied for the treatment of endometriosis and uterine fibroids. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved AbbVie's elagolix under the brand name Orilissa as the first and only oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist specifically developed for women with moderate to severe endometriosis pain.
Dacomitinib is an oral, once-daily, pan-HER inhibitor. It is an irreversible inhibitor of HER-1 (EGFR), HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases. Dacomtinib is being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials against nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Direct comparison with erlotinib did not show superiority of dacomtinib, but subgroup analysis have demonstrated that subgroup with exon 19 deletion had favorable outcomes with dacomitinib. In addition to nonsmall-cell lung cancer dacomtinib is being evaluated against esophagus, head and neck and other neoplasms. Due to its ability to pass through blood-brain barrier, dacomitinib can be used to treat brain tumors.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
SYMDEKO by Vertex
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Tezacaftor (VX-661) is an investigational compound developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals to treat cystic fibrosis (CF). It is an oral corrector of the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and is similar to lumacaftor, another N-aryl-1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide derivative developed by Vertex. Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in CFTR gene, which encodes an epithelial chloride channel. The most common mutant Δ508CFTR is a misfolded protein that does not reach the cell membrane. VX-661 corrects trafficking of Δ508CFTR and partially restores chloride channel activity. In vitro, a combination of VX-661 and ivacaftor, an FDA approved in 2012 CFTR potentiator which increases the time the CFTR channel is open, allowing chloride ions to flow through the CFTR proteins on the surface of epithelial cells, resulted in greater CFTR activity compared with VX-661 alone. In February 2012, a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of VX-661 was initiated in CF patients who were homozygous or heterozygous for the F508del mutation. There is an ongoing Vertex Phase 3 development program of VX-661 in combination with ivacaftor which includes four studies on CF patients 1) with two copies of the F508del mutation, 2) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function, 3) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function gating defect in the CFTR protein and 4) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in minimal CFTR function.
Doravirine (MK-1439) is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase (NNRTI). It displays excellent activities against not only WT viruses but also a broader panel of NNRTI-resistant viruses. Doravirine is a prescription medicine approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection in adults who have never taken HIV medicines before. Doravirine is always used in combination with other HIV medicines.
Status:
US Approved Rx (2018)

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Coflodiol, also known as ursadiol, is a triterpenoid, isolated from the non-saponifiable lipid fraction of the flower extract of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium). This compound possesses minimal antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Status:
First approved in 2018
Source:
COPIKTRA by Takeda Pharmaceutical
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Duvelisib (IPI-145), is an orally available, small-molecule, selective dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) δ and γ isoforms originated by Intellikine (owned by Takeda) and developed by Infinity Pharmaceuticals. Orally administered duvelisib was rapidly absorbed, with a dose-proportional increase in exposure. The compound produced a half-life of approximately 7-12 hours, following 14 days of dosing. Duvelisib exerts profound effects on adaptive and innate immunity by inhibiting B and T cell proliferation, blocking neutrophil migration, and inhibiting basophil activation. Duvelisib blockade of PI3K-δ and PI3K-γ potentially lead to significant therapeutic effects in multiple inflammatory, autoimmune, and hematologic diseases. The molecule is in phase III development as a combination therapy for patients with haematological malignancies such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma.
Status:
First approved in 2018

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Lofexidine is newly FDA approved in the United States under the brand name LUCEMYRA for the treatment of opioid withdrawal symptoms in adults. Lofexidine acts as an agonist to α2 adrenergic receptors. These receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, leading to the inhibition of the second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The inhibition of cAMP leads to potassium efflux through calcium-activated channels, blocking calcium ions from entering the nerve terminal, resulting in suppression of neural firing, inhibition of norepinephrine release. Lofexidine replaces the opioid-driven inhibition of cAMP production and moderating the symptoms of opioid withdrawal.