U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 21 - 30 of 107352 results


Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Triheptanoin (also known as C7 oil) is an investigational medical food or supplement. Triheptanoin is thought to have an anaplerotic role, meaning that it can replenish substances involved in the tricarbolic acid cycle, a pathway used by cells to produce energy, providing an alternative source of energy to the brain. It supplies the body with heptanoate which can either be oxidized to propionyl-CoA directly or is metabolized by the liver to the“C5 ketones”, β-ketopentanoate and/or β-hydroxypentanoate, which are released into the blood. After one month of triheptanoin use, the level of energy production in the brain during visual stimulation had become normal in Huntington’s patients. Triheptanoin was anticonvulsant in two chronic mouse models and increased levels of anaplerotic precursor metabolites in epileptic mouse brains. Despite the unknown mechanism of triheptanoin’s anticonvulsant action, the fact that triheptanoin has been used safely in several animals and for various metabolic diseases in children and adults should expedite the ethical and regulatory approval processes for a clinical trial in medically refractory patients with epilepsy. Triheptanoin is phase II clinical trial for the treatment of glycogen storage disease type V, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Brilliant Blue G is triphenylmethane dye that was developed for use in the textile industry but is now commonly used for staining proteins in analytical biochemistry. The Bradford assay is a standard, rapid dye-binding assay that uses Brilliant Blue G to quantify the amount of protein in a solution. Brilliant Blue G also acts as a selective inhibitor of the P2X purinoceptor channel P2X7 (IC50s = 10.1 and 265 nM for rat and human P2X7, respectively). In mice, it inhibits interleukin-1β expression and reduces neurological injury secondary to traumatic brain injury. Brilliant Blue G was used to prepare the protein reagent for the determination of protein content of the collagenase enzyme isolated from fish waste. It may be employed as a stain for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) for the macular hole (MH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Trifarotene is a novel first-in-class fourth-generation topical retinoid. It is a potent and selective RAR gamma-agonist. In multiple mouse models, trifarotene exhibited superior comedolytic, anti-inflammatory and depigmenting activity compared with other topical retinoids. In this 52-week study, trifarotene was safe, well-tolerated and effective in moderate facial and truncal acne. Trifarotene is in phase II clinical trial for the treatment of ichthyosis.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Ubrogepant, a small molecule drug, is being developed by Merck & Co for the treatment of migraine. The calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP) antagonist is administered orally as a film coated tablet. Ubrogepant is a competitive antagonist with high affinity, potency, and selectivity for the human CGRP receptor. In the four clinical studies (ACHIEVE I, ACHIEVE II, UBR-MD-04 and 3110-105-002) ubrogepant demonstrated efficacy, safety and tolerability in the acute treatment of migraine among a broad patient population, including those who had an insufficient response to a triptan or those patients in whom triptans were contraindicated, as well as in patients who had moderate to severe CV risk profile.
Lemborexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist, which inhibits orexin by binding competitively to two subtypes of orexin receptors. During normal periods of sleep, orexin system activity is suppressed, suggesting it is possible to purposefully facilitate the initiation and maintenance of sleep by interfering with orexin neurotransmission with lemborexant. Extensive in vitro and non-clinical testing of lemborexant supported the supposition that lemborexant has a low risk of QT prolongation at therapeutic and supratherapeutic exposures in humans. A Phase III study of lemborexant in insomnia is underway, and in addition, Eisai has announced the initiation of Phase II clinical studies of lemborexant in patients with irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Cenobamate (also known as YKP3089) is a small molecule sodium channel blocker in development for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adult patients. In mice and rats, Cenobamate displayed an anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock test and prevented seizures induced by chemical convulsants such as pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin. In addition, Cenobamate was reported to be effective in two models of focal seizure, the hippocampal kindled rat and the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure models. Two completed adequate and well-controlled clinical studies demonstrated a significant reduction in focal seizures with Cenobamate in patients with epilepsy, and a long-term open-label phase 3 safety clinical trial is currently ongoing. Cenobamate is considered a new generation antiepileptic therapy and clinical trials have shown that it may be more effective and safer than existing drugs. If licensed, Cenobamate will offer a new adjunctive treatment option for patients with partial focal epilepsy.
Lumateperone (ITI-722/ITI-007) is a dual 5HT2A receptor antagonist/dopamine phosphoprotein modulator (DPPM) for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is an orally available compound which combines potent 5HT2A receptor antagonism with cell-type-specific modulation of phosphoprotein pathways downstream of dopamine receptors. Lumateperone was developed by Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., and is being evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. In 3 efficacy studies in patients with acute schizophrenia, lumateperone was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile, and in 2 studies of 3 demonstrated significantly superior efficacy over placebo.
Triclabendazole, (brand name Avomec, Egaten, etc) is a member of the benzimidazole family of anthelmintics used to treat liver flukes, specifically fascioliasis and paragonimiasis. Triclabendazole used routinely since 1983 in veterinary practice for the treatment of fascioliasis. It was not used in humans until the 1989 epidemic of fascioliasis near the Caspian Sea when Iranian authorities approved the use of the veterinary formulation to treat the infection. Fasciolicidal not only against the adult worms present in the biliary ducts, but also against the immature larval stages of Fasciola migrating through the hepatic parenchyma. Triclabendazole is shown to penetrate into liver flukes by transtegumentary absorption followed by inhibition of the parasite's motility, probably related to the destruction of the microtubular structure, resulting in the death of the parasite; the immobilizing effect is paralleled by changes in the parasite's resting tegumental membrane potential, strongly inhibiting the release of proteolytic enzymes, a process that appears critical to the survival of the parasite. Side effects are generally few, but can include abdominal pain and headaches. Biliary colic may occur due to dying worms. While no harms have been found with use during pregnancy, triclabendazole has not been well studied in this population. Triclabendazole is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is not commercially available in the United States.