U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 17 - 32 of 7423 results

Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA211192 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 71334-100
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Description

Ivosidenib (AG-120) is an inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) This experimental drug inhibits mutant IDH1, leading to increased differentiation and decreased proliferation in IDH1 positive tumors and thus is thought to be promising for the treatment of IDH1-mutated tumors. In vivo treatment with AG-120 of TF-1 cells, primary human AML patient samples expressing mutant IDH1 and primary human blast cells cultured ex vivo showed that AG-120 is effective at lowering 2-HG levels and restoring cellular differentiation. It showed promising results in a phase I trial in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia and is being evaluated in Phase III in previously-treated subjects with nonresectable or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with an IDH1 mutation.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA210951 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 59676-600
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Description

Apalutamide (developmental code name ARN-509) is a selective and competitive androgen receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM, useful for prostate cancer treatment. Apalutamide binds to AR in target tissues thereby preventing androgen-induced receptor activation and facilitating the formation of inactive complexes that cannot be translocated to the nucleus. This prevents binding to and transcription of AR-responsive genes. This ultimately inhibits the expression of genes that regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in AR-expressing tumor cells. Apalutamide is currently in phase III clinical trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer.

FOSTAMATINIB DISODIUM

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Description

Fostamatinib is a pro-drug of a Syk inhibitor R406 initially developed by Rigel Pharmaceuticals, but then in-licensed by AstraZeneca. It reached phase III of clinical trials for such diseases as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, however AstraZeneca decided not to proceed with regulatory filings and return the rights to the compound to Rigel Pharmaceuticals, which is now developing the drug for indications like Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (phase II) and IgA Nephropathy (phase II) and Immune Thrombocytopenia (phase III).
Status:
US Approved Rx

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Description

Moxidectin is a semi-synthetic methoxime derivative of LL F-2924α, commonly referred as F-alpha or nemadectin F-alpha is a product of fermentation of Streptomyces cyaneogriseus subsp. noncyanogenus, a bacterial organism isolated in 1983 from a sample of sand from Victoria, Australia. Moxidectin is a potent, broad-spectrum endectocide with activity against a wide range of nematodes, insects and acari. The compound acts by binding to ligand-gated chloride channels, more specifically the subtypes that are gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) mediated and glutamate-gated. The consequence of Moxidectin binding and activation is an increased permeability, leading to an influx of chloride ions and flaccid paralysis of the parasite leading to death. The macrocyclic lactones probably act by binding to and opening glutamate-gated chloride channels found only in neurons and myocytes of invertebrates. Because moxidectin is very lipophilic, it becomes highly concentrated in the serum. When the concentration of moxidectin in the serum is high, moxidectin is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Once it is in the central nervous system, a macrocyclic lactone stimulates the synaptic secretion of the inhibitory neurotransmitter, GABA. By binding at the receptor site, GABA causes influx of chloride ions into neurons, causing the neurons to become hyperpolarised, which in turn, causes diminution in neuronal activity, resulting in sedation and relaxation of the skeletal muscles. Signs displayed by foals with moxidectin toxicity included dyspnoea, depression, ataxia, weakness, coma and seizures. In a Phase 3 study compared the efficacy, safety and tolerability of moxidectin and ivermectin in subjects infected with Onchocerca volvulus, which is the parasite that causes river blindness.
Status:
US Approved Rx

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)


Conditions:

Description

Lusutrombopag (trade name Mulpleta) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor agonist being developed by Shionogi for chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with thrombocytopenia prior to elective invasive surgery. Lusutrombopag acts selectively on the human TPO receptor and activates signal transduction pathways that promote the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow cells into megakaryocytes, thereby increasing platelet levels. In September 2015, Lusutrombopag received its first global approval in Japan for the improvement of CLD-associated thrombocytopenia in patients scheduled to undergo elective invasive procedures. Oral Lusutrombopag is rapidly absorbed, with a median time to maximum serum concentration (Tmax) of 3.8–4.0 h in healthy subjects administered single doses of oral Lusutrombopag 1, 2 or 4 mg, and 6 h in CLD patients with thrombocytopenia administered oral Lusutrombopag 3 mg once daily for 7 days. The major metabolic pathway for Lusutrombopag appears to be omega- and beta-oxidation. Lusutrombopag is a substrate of breast cancer resistance protein and P-glycoprotein, according to in vitro data.
Status:
US Approved Rx

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)



Description

Stiripentol is an anticonvulsant drug used in the treatment of epilepsy. It recently proved to increase the GABAergic transmission in vitro in an experimental model of immature rat. Clinical studies were based on the fact that STP also acts as an inhibitor of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2C19 in vivo in epileptic patients. Side effects are largely due to the increase in plasma concentrations of other anticonvulsants and can be reduced by lowering the dose of those drugs. Nausea and vomiting are particularly noted when used in combination with sodium valproate. It appears to increase the potency of phenobarbital, primidone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, clobazam and diazepam.

Description

Binimetinib (MEK162) is an oral small-molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. It is a selective mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) inhibitor, a key protein kinase in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which regulates several key cellular activities including proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival and angiogenesis. Inappropriate activation of this pathway has been shown to occur in many cancers, in particular through mutations in BRAF, KRAS and NRAS. MEK162 at 6 mg/kg, BID combined with BEZ235 (dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth in immunodeficient mice injected with MCF7 cells. There are three ongoing Phase 3 trials with binimetinib in advanced cancer patients: NEMO (NRAS-mutant melanoma), COLUMBUS (encorafenib in combination with binimetinib in BRAF-mutant melanoma) and BEACON CRC (encorafenib, binimetinib and cetuximab in BRAF-mutant colorectal cancer).
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA211109 XERAVA TETRAPHASE PHARMS
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA210251 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 61958-2501
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

LUTETIUM OXODOTREOTIDE LU-177

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Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA208700 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 69488-003
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA210496 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 70255-025
(2018)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Description

Encorafenib, known as LGX818, is an orally available mutated BRaf V600E inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity, which was developed by Novartis. LGX818 possesses selective anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity in cells expressing BRAFV600E. In the A375 (BRAFV600E) human melanoma cell line LGX818 suppresses phospho-ERK (EC50 = 3 nM) leading to potent inhibition of proliferation (EC50 = 4 nM). No significant activity was observed against a panel of 100 kinases (IC50 > 900 nM) and LGX818 did not inhibit proliferation of > 400 cell lines expressing wild-type BRAF. This drug is in the phase III clinical trials for the treatment Melanoma and in combination therapy, Encorafenib in phase III for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and in phase II for Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Description

Netarsudil ophthalmic solution (Rhopressa) is a Rho kinase inhibitor for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. As of December 18, 2017 the FDA approved Aerie Pharmaceutical's Rhopressa (netarsudil ophthalmic solution) 0.02% for the indication of reducing elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Acting as both a rho kinase inhibitor and a norepinephrine transport inhibitor, Netarsudil is a novel glaucoma medication in that it specifically targets the conventional trabecular pathway of aqueous humour outflow to act as an inhibitor to the rho kinase and norepinephrine transporters found there as opposed to affecting protaglandin F2-alpha analog like mechanisms in the unconventional uveoscleral pathway that many other glaucoma medications demonstrate.

Description

Midostaurin, a derivate of staurosporine (N-benzoylstaurosporine), is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of Ser/Thr and Tyr protein kinases. Midostaurin showed broad antiproliferative activity against various tumor and normal cell lines in vitro and is able to reverse the p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance of tumor cells in vitro. Midostaurin showed in vivo antitumor activity as single agent and inhibited angiogenesis in vivo. At the end of 2016 FDA granted Priority Review to the PKC412 (midostaurin) new drug application (NDA) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in newly-diagnosed adults with an FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) mutation, as well as for the treatment of advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM).

Description

Latanoprostene Bunod (LBN) is a topical ophthalmic therapeutic for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. There is no cure for glaucoma and therapeutic management is predominantly focused on minimizing disease progression and clinical sequelae via the reduction and maintenance of appropriate target IOPs. Latanoprostene Bunod is thought to lower intraocular pressure via a dual mechanism of action since the medication is metabolized into two relevant moieties upon administration: latanoprost acid, and butanediol mononitrate. As a prostaglandin F2-alpha analog, the latanoprost acid moiety operates as a selective PGF2-alpha (FP) receptor agonist. Since FP receptors occur in the ciliary muscle, ciliary epithelium, and sclera the latanoprost acid moiety primarily acts in the uveoscleral pathway where it increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) like MMP-1, -3, and -9 which promote the degradation of collagen types I, III, and IV in the longitudinal bundles of the ciliary muscle and surrounding sclera. The resultant extracellular matrix remodeling of the ciliary muscle consequently produces reduced outflow resistance via increased permeability and increased aqueous humor outflow through the uveoscleral route. Conversely, the butanediol mononitrate undergoes further metabolism to NO and an inactive 1,4-butanediol moiety. As a gas that can freely diffuse across plasma membranes, it is proposed that the relaxing effect of NO to induce reductions in the cell volume and contractility of vascular smooth muscle-like cells is dependent upon activation of the sGC/cGMP/PKG cascade pathway. NO released from butanediol mononitrate consequently enters the cells of the TM and an inner wall of SC, causing decreases in myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation, increased phosphorylation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels, and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions through such BKCa channels. All of these changes serve to decrease the cell contractility and volume, as well as to rearrange the actin cytoskeleton of the TM and SC cells. These biomechanical changes ultimately allow for enhanced conventional outflow of aqueous humor.

Description

Copanlisib, developed by Bayer, is a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Copanlisib inhibits the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, which may result in inhibition of tumor cell growth and survival in susceptible tumor cell populations. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway is frequently associated with tumorigenesis and dysregulated PI3K signaling may contribute to tumor resistance to a variety of antineoplastic agents. Copanlisib is currently under Phase II/III clinical trials for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Status:
US Approved Rx
Source:
NDA209570 - NDA - referenced by: NDC 0642-7463
(2017)
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Conditions:

Description

Benznidazole is an antiparasitic medication used in first-line treatment of Chagas disease. Benznidazole is a nitroimidazole antiparasitic with good activity against acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, commonly referred to as Chagas disease. Like other nitroimidazoles, benznidazole's main mechanism of action is to generate radical species which can damage the parasite's DNA or cellular machinery. Under anaerobic conditions, the nitro group of nitroimidazoles is believed to be reduced by the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase complex to create a reactive nitro radical species. The nitro radical can then either engage in other redox reactions directly or spontaneously give rise to a nitrite ion and imidazole radical instead. In mammals, the principal mediators of electron transport are NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH, which have a more positive reduction potential and so will not reduce nitroimidazoles to the radical form. This limits the spectrum of activity of nitroimidazoles so that host cells and DNA are not also damaged. This mechanism has been well-established for 5-nitroimidazoles such as metronidazole, but it is unclear if the same mechanism can be expanded to 2-nitroimidazoles (including benznidazole). In the presence of oxygen, by contrast, any radical nitro compounds produced will be rapidly oxidized by molecular oxygen, yielding the original nitroimidazole compound and a superoxide anion in a process known as "futile cycling". In these cases, the generation of superoxide is believed to give rise to other reactive oxygen species. The degree of toxicity or mutagenicity produced by these oxygen radicals depends on cells' ability to detoxify superoxide radicals and other reactive oxygen species. In mammals, these radicals can be converted safely to hydrogen peroxide, meaning benznidazole has very limited direct toxicity to human cells. In Trypanosoma species, however, there is a reduced capacity to detoxify these radicals, which results in damage to the parasite's cellular machinery. Benznidazole has a significant activity during the acute phase of Chagas disease, with a therapeutical success rate up to 80%. Its curative capabilities during the chronic phase are, however, limited. Some studies have found parasitologic cure (a complete elimination of T. cruzi from the body) in pediatric and young patients during the early stage of the chronic phase, but overall failure rate in chronically infected individuals is typically above 80%. However, some studies indicate treatment with benznidazole during the chronic phase, even if incapable of producing parasitologic cure, because it reduces electrocardiographic changes and a delays worsening of the clinical condition of the patient. Side effects tend to be common and occur more frequently with increased age. The most common adverse reactions associated with benznidazole are allergic dermatitis and peripheral neuropathy. It is reported that up to 30% of people will experience dermatitis when starting treatment. Benznidazole may cause photosensitization of the skin, resulting in rashes. Rashes usually appear within the first 2 weeks of treatment and resolve over time. In rare instances, skin hypersensitivity can result in exfoliative skin eruptions, edema, and fever. Peripheral neuropathy may occur later on in the treatment course and is dose-dependent. Other adverse reactions include anorexia, weight loss, nausea, vomiting, insomnia, and dyslexia, and bone marrow suppression. Gastrointestinal symptoms usually occur during the initial stages of treatment and resolves over time. Bone marrow suppression has been linked to the cumulative dose exposure.