U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 11 - 20 of 6045 results

PF-04449913 is a potent and selective inhibitor of the Hh signaling pathway through binding to the target, smoothened. PF-04449913 inhibits Hh signaling in vitro and has demonstrated significant antitumor activity in vivo. In the clinic, PF-04449913 is being evaluated both in hematological and solid malignancies, with a phase II trial currently underway in both fit and unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Treatment-related adverse-events were nausea, dizziness, somnolence, QT prolongation and pruritus. Based on pre-clinical assessments, CYP3A4 is believed to be primarily involved in the metabolism of PF-04449913 that is why PF-04449913 plasma exposures and peak concentrations were increased following concurrent administration of ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor).
Lorlatinib is an investigational medicine that inhibits the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and ROS1 proto-oncogene. Lorlatinib was specifically designed to inhibit tumor mutations that drive resistance to other ALK inhibitors and to penetrate the blood brain barrier. A Phase 1/2 clinical trial of lorlatinib in patients with ALK-positive or ROS1-positive advanced NSCLC is currently ongoing. Lorlatinib has not yet been approved by any regulatory agency. Common treatment-related adverse events were hypercholesterolemia and peripheral neuropathy.
Larotrectinib (previously known as ARRY-470 and LOXO-101) is a potent, oral and selective investigational new drug in clinical development for the treatment of patients with cancers that harbor abnormalities involving the tropomyosin receptor kinases (TRKs). Larotrectinib is in phase II clinical trials for the treatment patients with solid tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and for the pediatric patients with advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.
Baricitinib (trade name Olumiant) is an investigational drug for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), being developed by Incyte and Eli Lilly. Baricitinib is a selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor with IC50 of 5.9 nM and 5.7 nM in cell-free assays. In December 2016, the European Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) recommended the approval of baricitinib as a second-line therapy for RA in adults, either alone or in combination with methotrexate.
Gilteritinib, also known as ASP2215, is a potent FLT3/AXL inhibitor, which showed potent antileukemic activity against AML with either or both FLT3-ITD and FLT3-D835 mutations. In invitro, among the 78 tyrosine kinases tested, Gilteritinib inhibited FLT3, LTK, ALK, and AXL kinases by over 50% at 1 nM with an IC50 value of 0.29 nM for FLT3, approximately 800-fold more potent than for c-KIT, the inhibition of which is linked to a potential risk of myelosuppression. Gilteritinib inhibited the growth of MV4-11 cells, which harbor FLT3-ITD, with an IC50 value of 0.92 nM, accompanied with inhibition of pFLT3, pAKT, pSTAT5, pERK, and pS6. Gilteritinib decreased tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells. Gilteritinib is in Phase 3 development by Astellas Pharma for treatment of FLT3 mutation-positive AML, including patients with FLT3-ITD mutations. In previous preclinical studies, gilteritinib has demonstrated superior antitumor effects when given in combination with AraC and either DNR or IDR compared with combination chemotherapy.
Dacomitinib is an oral, once-daily, pan-HER inhibitor. It is an irreversible inhibitor of HER-1 (EGFR), HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases. Dacomtinib is being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials against nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Direct comparison with erlotinib did not show superiority of dacomtinib, but subgroup analysis have demonstrated that subgroup with exon 19 deletion had favorable outcomes with dacomitinib. In addition to nonsmall-cell lung cancer dacomtinib is being evaluated against esophagus, head and neck and other neoplasms. Due to its ability to pass through blood-brain barrier, dacomitinib can be used to treat brain tumors.
Tezacaftor (VX-661) is an investigational compound developed by Vertex Pharmaceuticals to treat cystic fibrosis (CF). It is an oral corrector of the CF transmembrane regulator (CFTR) and is similar to lumacaftor, another N-aryl-1-(2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)cyclopropanecarboxamide derivative developed by Vertex. Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in CFTR gene, which encodes an epithelial chloride channel. The most common mutant Δ508CFTR is a misfolded protein that does not reach the cell membrane. VX-661 corrects trafficking of Δ508CFTR and partially restores chloride channel activity. In vitro, a combination of VX-661 and ivacaftor, an FDA approved in 2012 CFTR potentiator which increases the time the CFTR channel is open, allowing chloride ions to flow through the CFTR proteins on the surface of epithelial cells, resulted in greater CFTR activity compared with VX-661 alone. In February 2012, a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of VX-661 was initiated in CF patients who were homozygous or heterozygous for the F508del mutation. There is an ongoing Vertex Phase 3 development program of VX-661 in combination with ivacaftor which includes four studies on CF patients 1) with two copies of the F508del mutation, 2) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function, 3) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in residual CFTR function gating defect in the CFTR protein and 4) one copy of the F508del mutation and a second mutation that results in minimal CFTR function.

Showing 11 - 20 of 6045 results