U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 1401 - 1410 of 2250 results

Status:
First approved in 1953
Source:
NDA009165
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Ethopropazine is an anticholinergic drug. Ethopropazine is an inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase and non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. Ethopropazine has been used for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions. Also It used for the symptomatic treatment of hepatolenticular degeneration and congenital athetosis.
Carbinoxamine is a histamine-H1 receptor blocking agent. It is an antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative properties. Carbinoxamine appears to compete with histamine (type H1) for receptor sites on effector cells in the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract. Carbinoxamine is effective for the symptomatic treatment of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis; vasomotor rhinitis; allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods; mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema; dermatographism; as therapy for anaphylactic reactions adjunctive to epinephrine and other standard measures after the acute manifestations have been controlled. Most common adverse reactions are: sedation, sleepiness, dizziness, disturbed coordination, epigastric distress, and thickening of bronchial secretions. Avoid concomitant use of alcohol and CNS depressants (hypnotics sedatives, tranquilizers, etc.) due to additive adverse effects.
Propantheline is an antimuscarinic agent used for the treatment of excessive sweating (hyperhidrosis), cramps or spasms of the stomach, intestines (gut) or bladder, and involuntary urination (enuresis). It can also be used to control the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and similar conditions. Propantheline is one of a group of antispasmodic medications which work by blocking the action of the chemical messenger acetylcholine, which is produced by nerve cells, to muscarinic receptors present in various smooth muscular tissues, in places such as the gut, bladder, and eye. Normally, the binding of acetylcholine induces involuntary smooth muscular contractions. Varying degrees of drying of salivary secretions may occur as well as decreased sweating. Ophthalmic side effects include blurred vision, mydriasis, cycloplegia, and increased ocular tension. Other reported adverse reactions include urinary hesitancy and retention, tachycardia, palpitations, loss of the sense of taste, headache, nervousness, mental confusion, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, insomnia, nausea, vomiting, constipation, bloated feeling, impotence, suppression of lactation, and allergic reactions or drug idiosyncrasies including anaphylaxis, urticaria and other dermal manifestations.
Status:
Possibly Marketed Outside US
First approved in 1953

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)



Reserpine is an alkaloid, isolated from the Rauwolfia serpentina plant and developed by Ciba pharma. Reserpine was approved by FDA for the treatment of hypertension and psychotic disorders. The drug exerts its effect by blocking two vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2. The blockade results in vesicles that lose their ability to store neurotransmitter molecules. Neurotransmitters, thus retained in cytosol, are then neutralized by MAO.
Levothyroxine (T4) is a synthetically prepared levo isomer of thyroxine, the major hormone secreted from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form triiodothyronine (T3) which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism. Thyroid hormone increases the metabolic rate of cells of all tissues in the body. In the fetus and newborn, thyroid hormone is important for the growth and development of all tissues including bones and the brain. In adults, thyroid hormone helps to maintain brain function, food metabolism, and body temperature, among other effects. The symptoms of thyroid deficiency relieved by levothyroxine include slow speech, lack of energy, weight gain, hair loss, dry thick skin and unusual sensitivity to cold. Levothyroxine acts like the endogenous thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4, a tetra-iodinated tyrosine derivative). In the liver and kidney, T4 is converted to T3, the active metabolite. In order to increase solubility, the thyroid hormones attach to thyroid hormone binding proteins, thyroxin-binding globulin, and thyroxin-binding prealbumin (transthyretin). Transport and binding to thyroid hormone receptors in the cytoplasm and nucleus then takes place. Thus by acting as a replacement for natural thyroxine, symptoms of thyroxine deficiency are relieved. Levothyroxine is used for use alone or in combination with antithyroid agents to treat hypothyroidism, goiter, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, myxedema coma, and stupor.
Status:
US Approved Rx (1980)
First approved in 1952

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)


Conditions:

Hydralazine is a direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent. Hydralazine works by relaxing blood vessels (arterioles more than venules) and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while reducing its workload. It also functions as an antioxidant. It inhibits membrane-bound enzymes that form reactive oxygen species, such as superoxides. Excessive superoxide counteracts NO-induced vasodilation. Hydralazine is used for the treatment of essential hypertension, alone or as an adjunct. Also for the management of severe hypertension when the drug cannot be given orally or when blood pressure must be lowered immediately, congestive heart failure (in combination with cardiac glycosides and diuretics and/or with isosorbide dinitrate), and hypertension secondary to pre-eclampsia/eclampsia.
Status:
Possibly Marketed Outside US
First approved in 2017
Source:
NDA008173
Source URL:

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Targets:


Monobenzone is a topical drug used for medical depigmentation. The mechanism of action of monobenzone is not fully understood. Monobenzone is oxidized by tyrosinase from melanocytes to a toxic quinones which induce non-apoptotic melanocyte cell death.
Status:
Possibly Marketed Outside US
Source:
ORANGE BOOK:HEXYLCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE [ORANGE BOOK]
Source URL:
First approved in 1952

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (RACEMIC)


Conditions:

Hexylcaine hydrochloride, a benzoic acid ester, is a local anaesthetic that has been used for surface anaesthesia of mucous membranes. Local anesthetics produce a transient block of nerve conduction by interfering with sodium channels. This effect of the anesthetic interferes with the development of an action potential across the nerve.
Status:
Possibly Marketed Outside US
First approved in 1952

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)



Phenylbutazone is an anti-inflammatory drug, which binds to and inactivates cyclooxygenases and prostacyclin synthase through peroxide (H2O2) mediated deactivation. The reduced production of prostaglandin leads to reduced inflammation of the surrounding tissues. Phenylbutazone was marked under the brand name butazolidin for the treatment rheumatoid arthritis and gout, but then this usage was discontinued. In addition, phenylbutazone is used in UK for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, but only in those cases, when other therapies are unsuitable.

Showing 1401 - 1410 of 2250 results