U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 1401 - 1410 of 1871 results

mixture
Status:
US Approved OTC (1995)
First approved in 1951
Source:
Mycifradin by Upjohn
Source URL:

Class:
MIXTURE



Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments, and eye drops. In vitro tests have demonstrated that neomycin is bactericidal and acts by inhibiting the synthesis of protein in susceptible bacterial cells. It is effective primarily against gram-negative bacilli but does have some activity against gram-positive organisms. Neomycin is active in vitro against Escherichia coli and the Klebsiella-Entero. Topical uses include treatment for superficial eye infections caused by susceptible bacteria (used in combination with other anti-infective), treatment of otitis externa caused by susceptible bacteria, treatment or prevention of bacterial infections in skin lesions, and use as a continuous short-term irrigant or rinse to prevent bacteriuria and gram negative rod bacteremia in bacteriuria patients with indwelling catheters. May be used orally to treat hepatic encephalopathy, as a perioperative prophylactic agent, and as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in the treatment of diarrhea caused to enter pathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Neomycin sulfate has been shown to be effective adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma by reduction of the ammonia forming bacteria in the intestinal tract. The subsequent reduction in blood ammonia has resulted in neurologic improvement. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Neomycin Sulfate Oral Solution and other antibacterial drugs, susceptible bacteria should use Neomycin Sulfate Oral Solution only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy. Neomycin binds to four nucleotides of 16S rRNA and a single amino acid of protein S12. This interferes with decoding site near nucleotide 1400 in 16S rRNA of 30S subunit. This region interacts with the wobble base in the anticodon of tRNA. This leads to interference with the initiation complex, misreading of mRNA so incorrect amino acids are inserted into the polypeptide leading to nonfunctional or toxic peptides and the breakup of polysomes into nonfunctional monosomes
Polymyxin B is a lipopeptide antibiotic isolated from Bacillus polymyxa. Its basic structure consists of a polycationic peptide ring and a tripeptide side chain with a fatty acid tail. Polymyxin B is a mixture of at least four closely related components, polymyxin B1 to B4, with polymyxin B1 and B2 being the two major components. Polymyxin B acts on Gram-negative bacteria by interacting with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer membrane and destabilizing it. Polymyxin B is indicated for the treatment of many bacterial diseases such as meningeal infections, urinary tract infections and bacteremia.
mixture
Status:
US Approved OTC
Source:
21 CFR 357.810(b) deodorants for internal use chlorophyllin copper complex
Source URL:
First approved in 1950
Source:
Odolex by Walker (MerrellNational)
Source URL:

Class:
MIXTURE

Targets:


Chlorophyllin is a water soluble derivative of chlorophyll. It has chemopreventive properties and forms a non-covalent complex with many mutagenic/carcinogenic molecules. Chlorophyllin inhibits cancer initiation and progression by targeting multiple molecules and pathways involved in the metabolism of carcinogens, cell cycle progression, apoptosis evasion, invasion, and angiogenesis. The modulatory effects of Chlorophyllin to be mediated via abrogation of key oncogenic signal transduction pathways such as nuclear factor kappa B, Wnt/β-catenin, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt signaling. Chlorophyllin sodium copper salt mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells, enhancing granulopoiesis, and stimulating prosurvival pathways in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes. In addition, chlorophyllin exhibits antioxidant, antiapoptotic and immunostimulatory effects. Chlorophyllin is intended to improve the quality of life in people who have fecal incontinence due to spinal cord injury, bowel cancer, psychotic disorder, terminal illness, or other disorders. Chlorophyllin is also used by people who have had a colostomy or ileostomy
mixture
Status:
US Approved OTC (1979)
First approved in 1948
Source:
Topitracint. by Commercial Solvents
Source URL:

Class:
MIXTURE



Bacitracin is a polypeptide antibiotic produced by Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. Bacitracin in combination with neomycin and polymyxin B is indicated for the treatment of many bacterial diseases. The antibacterial properties of bacitracin are mediated by its binding to C55-isoprenyl pyrophosphate, resulting in inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis.

Showing 1401 - 1410 of 1871 results