U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Showing 102031 - 102040 of 107352 results

Status:
Other

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Hordenine is a natural Phenethylamine compound that occurs in a number of different plants, but especially barley grass. It is structurally similar to the amino acid Tyramine. It antagonized D2-mediated beta-arrestin recruitment indicating functional selectivity. Hordenine inhibited melanogenesis by suppressing cAMP production, which is involved in the expression of melanogenesis-related proteins. Hordenine may be an effective inhibitor of hyperpigmentation. Hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine from stores. In isolated organs and those structures with reduced epinephrine contents, the hordenine-effect is only very poor. Experiments in intact animals (rats, dogs) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behavior of mice. Hordenine is considered to be generally very safe and well-tolerated in healthy adults. Hordenine is a nootropic compound that works equally well for cognitive enhancement and athletic performance.
Saponarin (SA), a natural flavonoid, is known for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Saponarin is found in diverse plants, including Tinospora cordifolia, which is used in an anti-diabetic drug, Aloe barbadensis, and barley leaves.Saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., showed in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against CCl₄-induced liver damage. Saponarin pretreatment also decreased cocaine toxicity both by increasing GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. SA isolated from barley sprouts exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, ERK and p38 signaling. Thus, SA may be a promising natural anti-inflammatory agent. Saponarin improves gluconeogenesis and glucose uptake. Saponarin regulates AMPK through induction of intracellular calcium levels. Saponarin has a hypoglycemic effect through the activation of the AMMKb–AMPK–CREB signaling axis in hepatocytes.

Showing 102031 - 102040 of 107352 results