U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

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Blu-285 is a potent and selective inhibitor for hematologic malignancies with KIT Exon 17 Mutations. BLU-285 has demonstrated biochemical in vitro activity on the KIT exon-17 mutant enzyme, KIT D816V. Cellular activity of BLU-285 on KIT D816 mutants was measured by autophosphorylation in the human mast cell leukemia cell line HMC1.2, and the P815 mouse mastocytoma cell line with IC50= 4 and 22 nM, respectively. In vivo BLU-285 was well tolerated and has demonstrated dose-dependent antitumor efficacy. Complete tumor growth inhibition and ≥ 75% KIT kinase inhibition was observed with 10 mg/kg once daily, oral dosing of BLU-285 in the aggressive KIT exon 17 mutant driven P815 mastocytoma model grown as a solid tumor allograft as well as in a disseminated model of the disease. BLU-285 was also well tolerated in this in vivo model and had no adverse effects on body weight at either dose.
Tazemetostat (EPZ-6438) is a selective inhibitor of histone-lysine N-methyltransferase EZH2. The drug is under clinical development (phase II) for the treatment of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma, Malignant Mesothelioma and Synovial Sarcoma.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

The selenite anion is a selenium oxoanion with the chemical formula SeO2−3. A selenite (Se) is a compound that contains this ion. Sodium selenite is an inorganic form of the trace element selenium with potential antineoplastic activity. It was documented that Se deficiency observed in some countries and/or geographic regions (e.g. Keshan region in China), is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality of neoplastic diseases. To correct this problem a number of organic and inorganic selenium compounds were developed and tested. However, it is now firmly established that only an inorganic sodium selenite with four-valent Se, and not that with six-valent (selenate) cation shows anticancer activity. Selenite can undergo redox reaction, for example with protein's sulfhydryl groups expressed on the surface of tumor cells. In this way selenite prevents non-enzymatic formation of parafibrin that coats tumors cells and hence presents them as 'self' to the innate cellular immune system. Consequently, macrophages of the lymphatic system do not recognize neoplastic cells as 'foreign' bodies and spare them from the immune destruction. Sodium selenite also showed promise as a cost-effective, nontoxic anti-inflammatory agent. Treatment with sodium selenite lowers reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, causes a spontaneous reduction in lymphedema volume, increases the efficacy of physical therapy for lymphedema, and reduces the incidence of erysipelas infections in patients with chronic lymphedema. Limited evidence has been presented though that intakes of selenium greater than the amount needed to allow full expression of selenoproteins may have chemopreventive effects against cancer. Controlled intervention studies are needed to fully evaluate selenium as a cancer chemopreventive agent. The US Food and Drug Administration approved a selenium supplement to animal diets; the most common form is sodium selenite for pet foods.
Brilliant Blue G is triphenylmethane dye that was developed for use in the textile industry but is now commonly used for staining proteins in analytical biochemistry. The Bradford assay is a standard, rapid dye-binding assay that uses Brilliant Blue G to quantify the amount of protein in a solution. Brilliant Blue G also acts as a selective inhibitor of the P2X purinoceptor channel P2X7 (IC50s = 10.1 and 265 nM for rat and human P2X7, respectively). In mice, it inhibits interleukin-1β expression and reduces neurological injury secondary to traumatic brain injury. Brilliant Blue G was used to prepare the protein reagent for the determination of protein content of the collagenase enzyme isolated from fish waste. It may be employed as a stain for the internal limiting membrane (ILM) for the macular hole (MH) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ACHIRAL)

Trifarotene is a novel first-in-class fourth-generation topical retinoid. It is a potent and selective RAR gamma-agonist. In multiple mouse models, trifarotene exhibited superior comedolytic, anti-inflammatory and depigmenting activity compared with other topical retinoids. In this 52-week study, trifarotene was safe, well-tolerated and effective in moderate facial and truncal acne. Trifarotene is in phase II clinical trial for the treatment of ichthyosis.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Ubrogepant, a small molecule drug, is being developed by Merck & Co for the treatment of migraine. The calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor (CGRP) antagonist is administered orally as a film coated tablet. Ubrogepant is a competitive antagonist with high affinity, potency, and selectivity for the human CGRP receptor. In the four clinical studies (ACHIEVE I, ACHIEVE II, UBR-MD-04 and 3110-105-002) ubrogepant demonstrated efficacy, safety and tolerability in the acute treatment of migraine among a broad patient population, including those who had an insufficient response to a triptan or those patients in whom triptans were contraindicated, as well as in patients who had moderate to severe CV risk profile.
Lemborexant is a dual orexin receptor antagonist, which inhibits orexin by binding competitively to two subtypes of orexin receptors. During normal periods of sleep, orexin system activity is suppressed, suggesting it is possible to purposefully facilitate the initiation and maintenance of sleep by interfering with orexin neurotransmission with lemborexant. Extensive in vitro and non-clinical testing of lemborexant supported the supposition that lemborexant has a low risk of QT prolongation at therapeutic and supratherapeutic exposures in humans. A Phase III study of lemborexant in insomnia is underway, and in addition, Eisai has announced the initiation of Phase II clinical studies of lemborexant in patients with irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Cenobamate (also known as YKP3089) is a small molecule sodium channel blocker in development for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in adult patients. In mice and rats, Cenobamate displayed an anticonvulsant activity in the maximal electroshock test and prevented seizures induced by chemical convulsants such as pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin. In addition, Cenobamate was reported to be effective in two models of focal seizure, the hippocampal kindled rat and the mouse 6 Hz psychomotor seizure models. Two completed adequate and well-controlled clinical studies demonstrated a significant reduction in focal seizures with Cenobamate in patients with epilepsy, and a long-term open-label phase 3 safety clinical trial is currently ongoing. Cenobamate is considered a new generation antiepileptic therapy and clinical trials have shown that it may be more effective and safer than existing drugs. If licensed, Cenobamate will offer a new adjunctive treatment option for patients with partial focal epilepsy.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Lumateperone (ITI-722/ITI-007) is a dual 5HT2A receptor antagonist/dopamine phosphoprotein modulator (DPPM) for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is an orally available compound which combines potent 5HT2A receptor antagonism with cell-type-specific modulation of phosphoprotein pathways downstream of dopamine receptors. Lumateperone was developed by Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc., and is being evaluated for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. In 3 efficacy studies in patients with acute schizophrenia, lumateperone was well-tolerated with a favorable safety profile, and in 2 studies of 3 demonstrated significantly superior efficacy over placebo.

Class (Stereo):
CHEMICAL (ABSOLUTE)

Tenapanor is an inhibitor of the sodium-proton (Na(+)/H(+)) exchanger NHE3 and reduces sodium absorption in the GI tract, thus increasing intestinal fluid. Ardelyx has completed Phase 3 development of tenapanor for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and submitted a new drug application to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with IBS-C. In addition, tenapanor successfully completed phase III clinical trial for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in people with end-stage renal disease who are on dialysis and RDX013, a potassium secretagogue program for the potential treatment of high potassium, or hyperkalemia, a problem among certain patients with kidney and/or heart disease.