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Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C38H50N6O5
Molecular Weight 670.8408
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 6 / 6
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of SAQUINAVIR

SMILES

CC(C)(C)NC(=O)[C@@H]1C[C@@H]2CCCC[C@@H]2CN1C[C@@H](O)[C@H](CC3=CC=CC=C3)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(N)=O)NC(=O)C4=CC=C5C=CC=CC5=N4

InChI

InChIKey=QWAXKHKRTORLEM-UGJKXSETSA-N
InChI=1S/C38H50N6O5/c1-38(2,3)43-37(49)32-20-26-14-7-8-15-27(26)22-44(32)23-33(45)30(19-24-11-5-4-6-12-24)41-36(48)31(21-34(39)46)42-35(47)29-18-17-25-13-9-10-16-28(25)40-29/h4-6,9-13,16-18,26-27,30-33,45H,7-8,14-15,19-23H2,1-3H3,(H2,39,46)(H,41,48)(H,42,47)(H,43,49)/t26-,27+,30-,31-,32-,33+/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula C38H50N6O5
Molecular Weight 670.8408
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 6 / 6
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED

Description

Saquinavir (brand names Invirase and Fortovase) is an antiretroviral drug used together with other medications to treat or prevent HIV/AIDS. Saquinavir is an inhibitor of HIV protease. HIV protease is an enzyme required for the proteolytic cleavage of viral polyprotein precursors into individual functional proteins found in infectious HIV. Saquinavir is a peptide-like substrate analog that binds to the protease active site and inhibits the activity of the enzyme. Saquinavir inhibition prevents cleavage of the viral polyproteins resulting in the formation of immature noninfectious virus particles. The most frequent adverse events with saquinavir in either formulation are mild gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, nausea, loose stools & abdominal discomfort. Invirase is better tolerated than Fortovase.

CNS Activity

Originator

Approval Year

PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Saquinavir soft gelatin capsule: a comparative safety review.
2001
Comparison of P-triglyceride levels among patients with human immunodeficiency virus on randomized treatment with ritonavir, indinavir or ritonavir/saquinavir.
2001
Generation of a flexible cell line with regulatable, high-level expression of HIV Gag/Pol particles capable of packaging HIV-derived vectors.
2001 Apr
An open-label randomized trial to evaluate different therapeutic strategies of combination therapy in HIV-1 infection: design, rationale, and methods of the initio trial.
2001 Apr
Impact of HIV type 1 protease, reverse transcriptase, cleavage site, and p6 mutations on the virological response to quadruple therapy with saquinavir, ritonavir, and two nucleoside analogs.
2001 Apr 10
Differences in the intracellular accumulation of HIV protease inhibitors in vitro and the effect of active transport.
2001 Apr 13
Determination of serum levels of thirteen human immunodeficiency virus-suppressing drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2001 Apr 13
Determination of interaction kinetic constants for HIV-1 protease inhibitors using optical biosensor technology.
2001 Apr 15
High prevalence of genotypic and phenotypic HIV-1 drug-resistant strains among patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
2001 Apr 15
A phase II trial of dual protease inhibitor therapy: amprenavir in combination with indinavir, nelfinavir, or saquinavir.
2001 Apr 15
[Improving the pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors in a more innovative manner. HIV drugs administered in a more clever way].
2001 Apr 2
Antiretrovirals: simultaneous determination of five protease inhibitors and three nonnucleoside transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma by a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry assay.
2001 Aug
Pharmacokinetics and resistance mutations affect virologic response to ritonavir/saquinavir-containing regimens.
2001 Aug
Antiviral drugs: current state of the art.
2001 Aug
Comparison of virologic, immunologic, and clinical response to five different initial protease inhibitor-containing and nevirapine-containing regimens.
2001 Aug 1
Steady-state pharmacokinetics of twice-daily dosing of saquinavir plus ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals.
2001 Aug 1
HIV-protease inhibitors contribute to P-glycoprotein efflux function defect in peripheral blood lymphocytes from HIV-positive patients receiving HAART.
2001 Aug 1
[Resistance to protease inhibitors].
2001 Feb
Pharmacology and clinical experience with saquinavir.
2001 Feb
Large hepatic mitochondrial DNA deletions associated with L-lactic acidosis and highly active antiretroviral therapy.
2001 Feb 16
New developments in anti-HIV chemotherapy.
2001 Jan-Feb
Synergistic antiviral effect of PEG-asparaginase (ONCASPAR), with protease inhibitor alone and in combination with RT inhibitors against HIV-1 infected T-cells: a model of HIV-1-induced T-cell lymphoma.
2001 Jan-Feb
Maternal-fetal transfer of saquinavir studied in the ex vivo placental perfusion model.
2001 Jul
Predictors of protease inhibitor-associated adverse events.
2001 Jul
HIV protease inhibitors attenuate adherence of Candida albicans to epithelial cells in vitro.
2001 Jul
Combination therapy with saquinavir soft gelatin capsules in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
2001 Jul
CMVR diagnoses and progression of CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurements in HIV patients on HAART.
2001 Jul
Capillary electrophoretic separation of protease inhibitors used in human immunodeficiency virus therapy.
2001 Jul 13
High-performance liquid chromatographic assay to determine the plasma levels of HIV-protease inhibitors (amprenavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir and saquinavir) and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nevirapine) after liquid-liquid extraction.
2001 Jul 15
Synthesis of a chiral aziridine derivative as a versatile intermediate for HIV protease inhibitors.
2001 Jul 26
The effects of antiretroviral protease inhibitors on serum lipid levels in HIV-infected patients.
2001 Jun
The effect of fluconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected individuals.
2001 Jun
Prognostic factors of combined viral load and CD4+ cell count responses under triple antiretroviral therapy, Aquitaine cohort, 1996-1998.
2001 Jun 1
Design and synthesis of a conformationally restricted trans peptide isostere based on the bioactive conformations of saquinavir and nelfinavir.
2001 Jun 1
Selection by AZT and rapid replacement in the absence of drugs of HIV type 1 resistant to multiple nucleoside analogs.
2001 Jun 10
Simultaneous determination of the HIV-protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, saquinavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
2001 Jun 15
The binding energetics of first- and second-generation HIV-1 protease inhibitors: implications for drug design.
2001 Jun 15
A comprehensive account on the role of efflux transporters in the gastrointestinal absorption of 13 commonly used substrate drugs in humans.
2001 Mar
Challenges of antiretroviral treatment in transient and drug-using populations: the SUN study.
2001 Mar
Sequencing of protease inhibitor therapy: insights from an analysis of HIV phenotypic resistance in patients failing protease inhibitors.
2001 Mar 30
The interaction of saquinavir (soft gelatin capsule) with ketoconazole, erythromycin and rifampicin: comparison of the effect in healthy volunteers and in HIV-infected patients.
2001 May
Secreted aspartic proteases of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida lusitaniae. Inhibition with peptidomimetic inhibitors.
2001 May
Regulation of expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue: tissue-specific induction by cytokines.
2001 May
Clinical outcome among HIV-infected patients starting saquinavir hard gel compared to ritonavir or indinavir.
2001 May 25
Simultaneous determination of the HIV protease inhibitors indinavir, amprenavir, saquinavir, ritonavir and nelfinavir in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.
2001 May 5
Combined hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and poly(alkylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles intended for oral administration of saquinavir.
2001 May 7
[Drug interactions with antiretroviral agents].
2001 May-Jun
Mismatched double-stranded RNA (polyI-polyC(12)U) is synergistic with multiple anti-HIV drugs and is active against drug-sensitive and drug-resistant HIV-1 in vitro.
2001 Sep
Novel low molecular weight spirodiketopiperazine derivatives potently inhibit R5 HIV-1 infection through their antagonistic effects on CCR5.
2001 Sep 14
Peptide mimetic HIV protease inhibitors are ligands for the orphan receptor SXR.
2001 Sep 7
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
1000 mg (with ritonavir 100 mg) PO q12hr, or in combination with ritonavir-enhanced lopinavir Treatment-naïve patients: Initial dose: 500 mg PO BID plus ritonavir 100 mg BID x 7 days, THEN increase to 1000mg/100mg PO BID
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
In vitro antiviral activity of saquinavir was assessed in lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines and in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Saquinavir inhibited HIV activity in both acutely and chronically infected cells. IC50 and IC90 values (50% and 90% inhibitory concentrations) were in the range of 1 to 30 nM and 5 to 80 nM, respectively. In the presence of 40% human serum, the mean IC50 of saquinavir against laboratory strain HIV-1 RF in MT4 cells was 37.7± 5nM representing a 4-fold increase in the IC50 value. In cell culture, saquinavir demonstrated additive to synergistic effects against HIV-1 in combination with reverse transcriptase inhibitors (didanosine, lamivudine, nevirapine, stavudine, zalcitabine and zidovudine) without enhanced cytotoxicity. Saquinavir in combination with the protease inhibitors amprenavir, atazanavir, or lopinavir resulted in synergistic antiviral activity. Saquinavir displayed antiviral activity in vitro against HIV-1 clades A-H (IC50 ranged from 0.9 to 2.5 nM). The IC50 and IC90 values of saquinavir against HIV-2 isolates in vitro ranged from 0.25 nM to 14.6 nM and 4.65 nM to 28.6 nM respectively.
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
Edited
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
Record UNII
L3JE09KZ2F
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
SAQUINAVIR
EMA EPAR   HSDB   INN   JAN   MART.   MI   ORANGE BOOK   USAN   USP   VANDF   WHO-DD   WHO-IP  
USAN   INN  
Official Name English
RO 31-8959/000
Code English
SAQUINAVIR [JAN]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIRUM [WHO-IP LATIN]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [ORANGE BOOK]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [VANDF]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [USAN]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [HSDB]
Common Name English
RO-31-8959/000
Code English
BUTANEDIAMIDE, N(SUP 1)-(3-(3-(((1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL)AMINO)CARBONYL)OCTAHYDRO-2(1H)-ISOQUINOLINYL)-2-HYDROXY-1-(PHENYLMETHYL)PROPYL)-2-((2-QUINOLINYLCARBONYL)AMINO)-, (3S-(2(1R*(R*),2S*),3.ALPHA.,4A.BETA.,8A.BETA.))-
Common Name English
(S)-N-((IS)-I-((1R)-2-((3S,4AS,8AS)-3-(TERT-BUTYLCARBAMOYL)OCTAHYDRO-2(1H)-ISOQUINOLYL)-1-HYDROXYETHYL)PHENETHYL)-2-QUINALDAMIDOSUCCINAMIDE
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [USP]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [WHO-IP]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [EMA EPAR]
Common Name English
(S)-N-((.ALPHA.S)-.ALPHA.-((1R)-2-((3S,4AS,8AS)-3-(TERT-BUTYLCARBAMOYL)OCTAHYDRO-2(1H)-ISOQUINOLYL)-1-HYDROXYETHYL)PHENETHYL)-2-QUINALDAMIDOSUCCINAMIDE
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [INN]
Common Name English
SAQUINAVIR [MART.]
Common Name English
SCH-52852
Code English
SAQUINAVIR [MI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
NDF-RT N0000175889
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
NDF-RT N0000000246
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
WHO-VATC QJ05AE01
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS INVIRASE (AUHTORIZED: HIV INFECTIONS)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
EMA ASSESSMENT REPORTS FORTOVASE (WITHDRAWN: HIV INFECTIONS)
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
WHO-ESSENTIAL MEDICINES LIST 6.4.2.3
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
WHO-ATC J05AE01
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
NCI_THESAURUS C97366
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
LIVERTOX 871
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
Code System Code Type Description
INN
7098
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
LactMed
127779-20-8
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C29444
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
IUPHAR
4813
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB01232
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
SAQUINAVIR
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
WHO INTERNATIONAL PHARMACOPEIA
SAQUINAVIR
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Description: A white or almost white powder. Solubility: Practically insoluble in water and soluble in methanol. Category: Antiretroviral (Protease Inhibitor). Storage: Saquinavir should be kept at 2-8?C in a tightly closed container, protected from light. Additional information: Saquinavir is slightly hygroscopic. Requirements: Saquinavir contains not less than 98.5 % and not more than 101.0 % of C38H50N6O5, calculated with reference to the dried substance.
ChEMBL
CHEMBL114
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
NDF-RT
N0000190114
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Cytochrome P450 3A Inhibitors [MoA]
EVMPD
SUB10446MIG
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
RXCUI
83395
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY RxNorm
PUBCHEM
441243
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M9776
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Merck Index
MESH
D019258
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
127779-20-8
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
HSDB
127779-20-8
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
CAS
127779-20-8
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 19:47:03 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
SUBSTRATE USED: ESTRONE-3-SULFATE
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
BINDER->LIGAND
BINDING
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
SALT/SOLVATE -> PARENT
TRANSPORTER -> SUBSTRATE
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
METABOLIC ENZYME -> SUBSTRATE
TRANSPORTER -> INHIBITOR
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY
Name Property Type Amount Referenced Substance Defining Parameters References
Volume of Distribution PHARMACOKINETIC