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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C4H4O4.2H4N
Molecular Weight 152.1491
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of AMMONIUM SUCCINATE

SMILES

[NH4+].[NH4+].[O-]C(=O)CCC([O-])=O

InChI

InChIKey=NHJPVZLSLOHJDM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/C4H6O4.2H3N/c5-3(6)1-2-4(7)8;;/h1-2H2,(H,5,6)(H,7,8);2*1H3

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula H3N
Molecular Weight 17.0305
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula C4H6O4
Molecular Weight 118.088
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description

Succinic acid is a dicarboxylic acid, which has multiple biological roles as a metabolic intermediate being converted into fumarate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase in complex 2 of the electron transport chain which is involved in making ATP, and as a signaling molecule reflecting the cellular metabolic state. Succinate is generated in mitochondria via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), an energy-yielding process shared by all organisms. Succinate can exit the mitochondrial matrix and function in the cytoplasm as well as the extracellular space, changing gene expression patterns, modulating epigenetic landscape or demonstrating hormone-like signaling. Dysregulation of succinate synthesis, and therefore ATP synthesis, happens in some genetic mitochondrial diseases, such as Leigh's disease, and Mela's disease and degradation can lead to pathological conditions, such as malignant transformation, inflammation and tissue injury. Succinic acid is a precursor to some polyesters and a component of some alkyd resins. Succinic acid also serves as the bases of certain biodegradable polymers, which are of interest in tissue engineering applications. As a food additive and dietary supplement, succinic acid is generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Succinic acid is used primarily as an acidity regulator in the food and beverage industry. It is also available as a flavoring agent, contributing a somewhat sour and astringent component to umami taste.[11] As an excipient in pharmaceutical products, it is also used to control acidity or as a counter ion. Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.

Approval Year

Targets

Targets

Primary TargetPharmacologyConditionPotency
3.0 µM [IC50]
Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Inactive ingredient
VESIcare
Inactive ingredient
Metoprolol Succinate ER
Inactive ingredient
Reamberin
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Structures and proton-pumping strategies of mitochondrial respiratory enzymes.
2001
Inhibition of spontaneous induction of lambdoid prophages in Escherichia coli cultures: simple procedures with possible biotechnological applications.
2001
[Intermittent hypoxic training with exogenous nitric oxide improves rat liver mitochondrial oxidation and phosphorylation during acute hypoxia].
2001
Tetracycline residues in meat and bone meals. Part 1: methodology and examination of field samples.
2001 Apr
Synthesis of ethyl alkylidene alpha cyanoacetates under ultrasound irradiation.
2001 Apr
Rat liver microsomal lipid peroxidation produced during the oxidative metabolism of ethacrynic acid.
2001 Apr
Inhibition of Escherichia coli respiratory enzymes by the lactoperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-thiocyanate antimicrobial system.
2001 Apr
A transient inhibition of mitochondrial ATP synthesis by nitric oxide synthase activation triggered apoptosis in primary cortical neurons.
2001 Apr
Enhancement of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine neurotoxicity by the energy inhibitor malonate.
2001 Apr
N-Acetylaspartate, a marker of both cellular dysfunction and neuronal loss: its relevance to studies of acute brain injury.
2001 Apr
Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae explored by biosynthetic fractional (13)C labeling of common amino acids.
2001 Apr
Combined effect of propofol and GSNO on oxidative phosphorylation of isolated rat liver mitochondria.
2001 Apr
Identification of respiratory complexes I and III as mitochondrial sites of damage following exposure to ionizing radiation and nitric oxide.
2001 Apr
The effects of feed and intracellular pyruvate levels on the redistribution of metabolic fluxes in Escherichia coli.
2001 Apr
The effects of endurance training and exhaustive exercise on mitochondrial enzymes in tissues of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).
2001 Apr
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: association of insulin resistance and mitochondrial abnormalities.
2001 Apr
Attenuation of malonate toxicity in primary mesencephalic cultures using the GABA transport blocker, NO-711.
2001 Apr 1
Germline SDHD mutation in familial phaeochromocytoma.
2001 Apr 14
Probing the active site of L-aspartate oxidase by site-directed mutagenesis: role of basic residues in fumarate reduction.
2001 Apr 17
New insights into the regulation of plant succinate dehydrogenase. On the role of the protonmotive force.
2001 Aug 31
A subtoxic interactive toxicity study of ethanol and chromium in male Wistar rats.
2001 Feb
A high-resolution integrated map spanning the SDHD gene at 11q23: a 1.1-Mb BAC contig, a partial transcript map and 15 new repeat polymorphisms in a tumour-suppressor region.
2001 Feb
Effects of cresols (o-, m-, and p-isomers) on the bioenergetic system in isolated rat liver mitochondria.
2001 Feb
Dramatic improvement in mitochondrial cardiomyopathy following treatment with idebenone.
2001 Feb
Dimeric pig heart succinate-coenzyme A transferase uses only one subunit to support catalysis.
2001 Feb 27
Time-course changes in arteriolar and venular portions of capillary in young treadmill-trained rats.
2001 Jan
Developmental aspects of the rat endolymphatic sac and functional implications.
2001 Jan
[High cell density culture of phosphotransacetylase mutants of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)].
2001 Jan
Alloxan-induced mitochondrial permeability transition triggered by calcium, thiol oxidation, and matrix ATP.
2001 Jul 20
Simultaneous chromium(VI) reduction and phenol degradation in a fixed-film coculture bioreactor: reactor performance.
2001 Jun
Modulation of mitochondrial function by hydrogen peroxide.
2001 Jun 29
Kinetic analyses of mitochondrial 75selenium uptake in Trigonella foenum-graecum seedlings exposed to selenium and mimosine.
2001 Mar
Metabolic enzymes and phenotypic expression among human locomotor muscles.
2001 Mar
A general method for the quantitative analysis of functional chimeras: applications from site-directed mutagenesis and macromolecular association.
2001 Mar
Oligoacetic acid characterization by isocratic and linear salt gradient anion-exchange chromatography.
2001 Mar
The simplest supramolecular complexes containing pairs of Mo(2)(formamidinate)(3) units linked with various dicarboxylates: preparative methods, structures, and electrochemistry.
2001 Mar 12
Isolation and phenotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pseudorevertants containing suppressors of the catabolite repression control-defective crc-10 allele.
2001 Mar 15
Analysis of sulfonated compounds by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
2001 Mar 30
Effects of culture conditions on enhancement of 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation by Burkholderia engineered with the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene.
2001 Mar-Apr
Possible involvement of protein phosphorylation in aluminum-responsive malate efflux from wheat root apex.
2001 May
Estradiol protects against ATP depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential decline and the generation of reactive oxygen species induced by 3-nitroproprionic acid in SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells.
2001 May
Chemical preconditioning with 3-nitropropionic acid in hearts: role of mitochondrial K(ATP) channel.
2001 May
Synthesis of iron-crosslinked chitosan succinate and iron-crosslinked hydroxamated chitosan succinate and their in vitro evaluation as potential matrix materials for oral theophylline sustained-release beads.
2001 May
Cloning and functional characterization of a high-affinity Na(+)/dicarboxylate cotransporter from mouse brain.
2001 May
Kinetic and crystallographic studies on deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS).
2001 May 18
The Quinone-binding sites of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.
2001 May 18
J-domain protein, Jac1p, of yeast mitochondria required for iron homeostasis and activity of Fe-S cluster proteins.
2001 May 18
The 'strict' anaerobe Desulfovibrio gigas contains a membrane-bound oxygen-reducing respiratory chain.
2001 May 4
In vitro effects of nicotine on mitochondrial respiration and superoxide anion generation.
2001 May 4
Aerobic capacity of frog skeletal muscle during hibernation.
2001 May-Jun
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Human: 0.20mh/kg/day up tp 12.2mg
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
Antiviral activity was measured in a plaque inhibition assay. Confluent Vero cell monolayer in 6-well multidishes were infected with 100 PFU in 1 mL of MEM medium. After adsorption at 37 °C for 2 h, residual inoculum was replaced with 1 mL of MEM medium containing 0.2% gamma-globulin and 1 mL of a dilution of varying concentrations of the Succinic acid. Virus-infected wells without compounds were used as cytopathogenicity controls. Viral cytopathogenicity (CPE) was completed 1-2 days after viral infection
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
Edited
by admin
on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
Record UNII
DTZ9PEC9JL
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
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Name Type Language
AMMONIUM SUCCINATE
WHO-DD  
Systematic Name English
SUCCINIC ACID, DIAMMONIUM SALT
Common Name English
BUTANEDIOIC ACID, DIAMMONIUM SALT
Common Name English
AMMONIUM SUCCINATE [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
DIAMMONIUM SUCCINATE
Systematic Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
EPA PESTICIDE CODE 77801
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
Code System Code Type Description
EVMPD
SUB180343
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
2226-88-2
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
218-759-3
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
CAS
2226-88-2
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:25:23 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> SALT/SOLVATE