U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS


Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula C4H5O4.Li
Molecular Weight 124.021
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0







Molecular Formula C4H5O4
Molecular Weight 117.0801
Charge -1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Molecular Formula Li
Molecular Weight 6.941
Charge 1
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE


Lithium is an alkali metal widely used in industry. Lithium salts are indicated in the treatment of manic episodes of Bipolar Disorder. The use of lithium in psychiatry goes back to the mid-19th century. Early work, however, was soon forgotten, and John Cade is credited with reintroducing lithium to psychiatry for mania in 1949. Mogens Schou undertook a randomly controlled trial for mania in 1954, and in the course of that study became curious about lithium as a prophylactic for depressive illness. In 1970, the United States became the 50th country to admit lithium to the marketplace. The specific mechanisms by which lithium exerts its mood-stabilizing effects are not well understood. Lithium appears to preserve or increase the volume of brain structures involved in emotional regulation such as the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala, possibly reflecting its neuroprotective effects. At a neuronal level, lithium reduces excitatory (dopamine and glutamate) but increases inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmission; however, these broad effects are underpinned by complex neurotransmitter systems that strive to achieve homeostasis by way of compensatory changes. For example, at an intracellular and molecular level, lithium targets second-messenger systems that further modulate neurotransmission. For instance, the effects of lithium on the adenyl cyclase and phospho-inositide pathways, as well as protein kinase C, may serve to dampen excessive excitatory neurotransmission. In addition to these many putative mechanisms, it has also been proposed that the neuroprotective effects of lithium are key to its therapeutic actions. In this regard, lithium has been shown to reduce the oxidative stress that occurs with multiple episodes of mania and depression. Further, it increases protective proteins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor and B-cell lymphoma 2, and reduces apoptotic processes through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 and autophagy.

CNS Activity


Approval Year



[Remarkable thymoanaleptic effect of lithium gluconate in recurrent melancholic states].
1971 Mar 20
[Lithium gluconate in emotional disturbances (preliminary results; current orientation)].
1971 Oct 20
[Modifications of serum creatine phosphokinase activity under the influence of lithium gluconate in Duchenne's myopathy].
1972 Nov
[Lithium gluconate: systematic and factorial analysis of 104 cases which have been studied for 2 and one-half to 3 years in patients regularly observed and showing periodic cyclothymia or dysthymia].
1974 Mar
[Lithium therapy in manic depressive diseases in old age].
Sinoatrial block during lithium treatment.
1975 Aug
[Side-effects of lithium therapy].
1975 Mar
[Treatment of drug-resistant depressive states with lithium gluconate].
1977 Mar
[Do lithium salts have a place in the treatment of severe hyperthyroidism? (author's transl)].
1977 Oct 8
[Cardiac electrophysiological effects of lithium gluconate in anesthetized dogs].
1978 Sep-Oct
[Evaluation of the potential cardiotoxicity of propranolol-lithium gluconate association (author's transl)].
1980 Mar-Apr
[Ultrastructural modifications in the thyroid glands of mice treated with lithium gluconate].
1982 Feb 8
[Crystalline inclusions of the mouse thyroid. Effect of chronic treatment with lithium gluconate].
Suppression of herpes simplex virus infections with oral lithium carbonate--a possible antiviral activity.
1996 Nov-Dec
The effects of lamotrigine on the pharmacokinetics of lithium.
2000 Sep
Influence of strain, sex and age on nephrotoxicity of lithium in a one-hour model in rats.
2001 Dec
Prevention of cannabinoid withdrawal syndrome by lithium: involvement of oxytocinergic neuronal activation.
2001 Dec 15
[A case of atropine-resistant bradycardia in a patient on long-term lithium medication].
2001 Nov
Tetraspan protein CD151: a common target of mood stabilizing drugs?
2001 Nov
Mild to severe lithium-induced nephropathy models and urine N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase in rats.
2001 Oct
Synergistic induction of severe hypothermia (poikilothermia) by limbic seizures, acepromazine and physical restraint: role of noradrenergic alpha-1 receptors.
2001 Oct-Nov
Sinus node dysfunction associated with lithium therapy in a child.
Lithium-induced nephrotic syndrome in a young pediatric patient.
2002 Apr
[Reversible cardiomyopathy induced by psychotropic drugs: case report and literature overview].
2002 Dec
Connection between lithium and muscular incoordination.
2002 Feb
Intracerebroventricular antisense to inositol monophosphatase-1 reduces enzyme activity but does not affect Li-sensitive behavior.
2002 Jan
Case report and review of the perinatal implications of maternal lithium use.
2002 Jul
Aminophylline aggravates long-term morphological and cognitive damages in status epilepticus in immature rats.
2002 Mar 22
Lithium induces NF-kappa B activation and interleukin-8 production in human intestinal epithelial cells.
2002 Mar 8
A case of Parkinsonism due to lithium intoxication: treatment with Pramipexole.
2002 May
Hydroethidine detection of superoxide production during the lithium-pilocarpine model of status epilepticus.
2002 May
Aminophylline exacerbates status epilepticus-induced neuronal damages in immature rats: a morphological, motor and behavioral study.
2002 May
Olanzapine-induced mania in bipolar disorders.
2002 May
[Progressive renal failure caused by lithium nephropathy].
2002 May 25
Lithium gluconate in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a multicenter, randomised, double-blind study versus placebo.
2002 Nov-Dec
Risk factors for falls during treatment of late-life depression.
2002 Oct
Sexual side effects associated with valproate.
2002 Oct
Status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine in the immature rat does not change the long-term susceptibility to seizures.
2002 Sep
Lithium toxicity: a potential interaction with celecoxib.
2002 Sep-Oct
Mood stabilisers plus risperidone or placebo in the treatment of acute mania. International, double-blind, randomised controlled trial.
2003 Feb
Left-sided splenorenal fusion with marked extramedullary hematopoiesis and concurrent lithium toxicity. A case report and review of the literature.
2003 Jan
Reverse pharmacological effect of loop diuretics and altered rBSC1 expression in rats with lithium nephropathy.
2003 Jan
Lithium gluconate 8% vs ketoconazole 2% in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a multicentre, randomized study.
2003 Jun
Effect of the lipid peroxidation product acrolein on tau phosphorylation in neural cells.
2003 Mar 15
2004 Mar
[Lithium gluconate 8% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis].
2007 Apr
Anti-inflammatory effects of lithium gluconate on keratinocytes: a possible explanation for efficiency in seborrhoeic dermatitis.
2008 Jun
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.
2015 Jul 25
Topical Treatment of Facial Seborrheic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review.
2017 Apr
Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: a comprehensive review.
2019 Mar

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
Optimal patient response to Lithium Carbonate usually can be established and maintained with 600 mg t.i.d. Optimal patient response to Lithium Oral Solution usually can be established and maintained with 10 mL (2 full teaspoons) (16 mEq of lithium) t.i.d. Such doses will normally produce an effective serum lithium level ranging between 1.0 and 1.5 mEq/l. Dosage must be individualized according to serum levels and clinical response. Regular monitoring of the patient’s clinical state and of serum lithium levels is necessary. Serum levels should be determined twice per week during the acute phase, and until the serum level and clinical condition of the patient have been stabilized.
Route of Administration: Oral
In Vitro Use Guide
Although lithium at a high concentration (10 mM) activated β-catenin in different types of neurons, β-catenin shifted to the nucleus at a therapeutically relevant concentration (1 mM) only in thalamic neurons, both in vivo and in vitro.
Substance Class Chemical
by admin
on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019
by admin
on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019
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Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019
Created by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Tue Oct 22 13:41:03 UTC 2019
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