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Details

Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Molecular Formula H2O
Molecular Weight 18.0153
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of WATER

SMILES

O

InChI

InChIKey=XLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI=1S/H2O/h1H2

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Molecular Formula H2O
Molecular Weight 18.0153
Charge 0
Count
Stereochemistry ACHIRAL
Additional Stereochemistry
Defined Stereocenters 0 / 0
E/Z Centers 0
Optical Activity NONE

Description

Sodium is the primary cation (positive ion) in extracellular fluids in animals and humans. Sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Sodium is needed by animals, which maintain high concentrations in their blood and extracellular fluids, but the ion is not needed by plants. The human requirement for sodium in the diet is less than 500 mg per day, which is typically less than a tenth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste. " Most people consume far more sodium than is physiologically needed. For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.

CNS Activity

Originator

Approval Year

TargetsConditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Primary
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE
Primary
Kayexalate
Primary
Primary
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
A point mutation at cysteine 189 blocks the water permeability of rat kidney water channel CHIP28k.
1993 Mar 30
Determination of the mechanism of free radical generation in human aortic endothelial cells exposed to anoxia and reoxygenation.
1994 Sep 30
Cloning and functional expression of a new water channel abundantly expressed in the testis permeable to water, glycerol, and urea.
1997 Aug 15
Immunolocalization and effect of dehydration on AQP3, a basolateral water channel of kidney collecting ducts.
1997 Feb
One-electron reduction of chromium(VI) by alpha-lipoic acid and related hydroxyl radical generation, dG hydroxylation and nuclear transcription factor-kappaB activation.
1997 Feb 15
Induction of aquaporin 3 by corticosteroid in a human airway epithelial cell line.
1997 Nov
Reactive oxygen species regulate macrophage scavenger receptor type I, but not type II, in the human monocytic cell line THP-1.
1998 Jun
Cloning and functional expression of a new aquaporin (AQP9) abundantly expressed in the peripheral leukocytes permeable to water and urea, but not to glycerol.
1998 Mar 6
Molecular characterization of a broad selectivity neutral solute channel.
1998 Sep 18
Cloning and functional expression of rAOP9L a new member of aquaporin family from rat liver.
1999 Feb
Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by zinc group metal compounds.
1999 Sep
Aquaporin-1 is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and mediates rapid water transport across vascular cell membranes.
1999 Sep-Oct
Role of aquaporin water channels in pleural fluid dynamics.
2000 Dec
Erythrocyte water permeability and renal function in double knockout mice lacking aquaporin-1 and aquaporin-3.
2001 Jan 5
Comparison of the effects of O2*-/HO* free radical- and copper ions-oxidized LDL or lipoprotein(a) on the endothelial cell releases of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.
2001 Oct 5
Reduced nephrotoxicity of conventional amphotericin B therapy after minimal nephroprotective measures: animal experiments and clinical study.
2002 Aug 1
Overexpression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase suppresses human glioma cell growth.
2002 Feb 15
Synergistic effects of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and aquaporin-9 in the rat epididymis.
2003 May
Interactions of growth inhibitory factor with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
2003 Sep
Role of reactive oxygen species and Cr(VI) in Ras-mediated signal transduction.
2004 Jan
Molecular and functional characterization of a vasotocin-sensitive aquaporin water channel in quail kidney.
2004 Oct
Effect of dioxane on the structure and hydration-dehydration of alpha-chymotrypsin as measured by FTIR spectroscopy.
2005 Jun 15
The mineralocorticoid receptor: a journey exploring its diversity and specificity of action.
2005 Sep
The renal medullary endothelin system in control of sodium and water excretion and systemic blood pressure.
2006 Jan
Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample.
2006 Jun
Mechanisms of disease: the role of GRK4 in the etiology of essential hypertension and salt sensitivity.
2006 Nov
Gill membrane remodeling with soft-water acclimation in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
2007 Jun 19
Tobramycin-induced aquagenic wrinkling of the palms in a patient with cystic fibrosis.
2009 Jul
Evidence for the involvement of aquaporins in sperm motility activation of the teleost gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).
2009 Nov
Aquaporins in the human testis and spermatozoa - identification, involvement in sperm volume regulation and clinical relevance.
2010 Aug 1
Redox cycling and increased oxygen utilization contribute to diquat-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.
2011 Apr 1
Testosterone modulates pituitary vasotocin receptor expression and adrenal activity in osmotically stressed chicken.
2011 Jan
Identification and characterization of functional aquaporin water channel protein from alimentary tract of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.
2011 Mar
Water restriction increases renal inner medullary manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD).
2012 Sep
Copper(II)-human amylin complex protects pancreatic cells from amylin toxicity.
2013 Aug 14
Patents

Sample Use Guides

In Vivo Use Guide
10% Potassium Hydroxide
Route of Administration: Topical
Substance Class Chemical
Created
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 20:36:11 UTC 2019
Edited
by admin
on Mon Oct 21 20:36:11 UTC 2019
Record UNII
059QF0KO0R
Record Status Validated (UNII)
Record Version
  • Download
Name Type Language
WATER
INCI   MI   VANDF   WHO-DD  
INCI  
Official Name English
NSC-147337
Code English
STERILE WATER
Common Name English
ULTREX II ULTRAPURE
Common Name English
WATER [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
HYDROGEN OXIDE (H2O)
Systematic Name English
WATER [INCI]
Common Name English
AQUA
INCI  
INCI  
Official Name English
WATER [VANDF]
Common Name English
WATER [MI]
Common Name English
AQUAFINA
Common Name English
PURIFIED WATER [MART.]
Common Name English
B1217 [LANGUAL]
Code English
R-718
Code English
AQUA [INCI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1089
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1081
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1236
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1096
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
Food Contact Sustance Notif, (FCN No.) FCN NO. 1082
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
Code System Code Type Description
CAS
7732-18-5
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
MESH
D014867
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
231-791-2
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB15717MIG
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C65147
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1098659
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
MERCK INDEX
M11507
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY Merck Index
RXCUI
11295
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB09145
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB29180
Created by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019 , Edited by admin on Mon Oct 21 20:36:12 UTC 2019
PRIMARY
Related Record Type Details
PARENT -> IMPURITY
Water (2.5.12): maximum 0.5 per cent, determined on 0.500 g.
EP
PARENT -> IMPURITY
Water: maximum 1.0 per cent, determined on 0.250 g.
CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURITY (HPLC/UV)
EP
Related Record Type Details
ACTIVE MOIETY