U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Divider Arrow National Institutes of Health Divider Arrow NCATS

Details

Stereochemistry ABSOLUTE
Molecular Formula C12H24O11
Molecular Weight 344.3129
Optical Activity UNSPECIFIED
Defined Stereocenters 9 / 9
E/Z Centers 0
Charge 0

SHOW SMILES / InChI
Structure of LACTITOL

SMILES

C([C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O)O[C@@]1([H])[C@@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@]([H])([C@@]([H])(CO)O1)O)O)O)O)O)O

InChI

InChIKey=VQHSOMBJVWLPSR-JVCRWLNRSA-N
InChI=1S/C12H24O11/c13-1-4(16)7(18)11(5(17)2-14)23-12-10(21)9(20)8(19)6(3-15)22-12/h4-21H,1-3H2/t4-,5+,6+,7+,8-,9-,10+,11+,12-/m0/s1

HIDE SMILES / InChI

Description
Curator's Comment:: https://health.mail.ru/drug/importal_n/ | http://www.druginfosys.com/drug.aspx?drugcode=2283&type=1 | https://medikamio.com/fr-ch/medicaments/importal-sachets-de-poudre-10-g/pil | http://www.tabletwise.com/medicine/lactitol-monohydrate

Lactitol is a sugar alcohol. This ingredient has been determined to be GRAS for specified uses as a direct food additive and foods containing lactitol are eligible for a health claim related to dental caries. Lactitol is used as an oral powder or solution in the management of hepatic encephalopathy and in case of short-term treatment of occasional constipation. Intestinal flora of large intestine is metabolize lactitol to low-molecular organic acid, which leads to an increase in osmotic pressure in intestine, increase in volume of fecal masses bowel function normalization. This drug might cause abdominal discomfort, especially flatulence and abdominal pain rarely or sometimes abdominal distension. These effects tend to diminish or disappear after a few days of regular intake of the drug. Since 'antacids and neomycin can neutralize ' acidifying effect of lactitol on stool, they should not be co-administered with lactitol in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy; however both substances do not alter the 'laxative effect in patients with constipation.

Originator

Curator's Comment:: http://www.sugar-and-sweetener-guide.com/lactitol.html

Approval Year

Conditions

Conditions

ConditionModalityTargetsHighest PhaseProduct
Primary
Importal

Approved Use

It is recommended for the treatment of occasional constipation, stool regulation and chronic hepatic encephalopathy.
Primary
Importal

Approved Use

It is recommended for the treatment of occasional constipation, stool regulation and chronic hepatic encephalopathy.
Cmax

Cmax

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
776 ng/mL
20 g single, oral
dose: 20 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
2780 ng/mL
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
776 ng/mL
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: HIGH-FAT
AUC

AUC

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
6.019 ng × h/mL
20 g single, oral
dose: 20 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
14941 ng × h/mL
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
6019 ng × h/mL
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: HIGH-FAT
T1/2

T1/2

ValueDoseCo-administeredAnalytePopulation
2.4 h
20 g single, oral
dose: 20 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL serum
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FED
2.16 h
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: FASTED
2.43 h
21 g single, oral
dose: 21 g
route of administration: Oral
experiment type: SINGLE
co-administered:
LACTITOL plasma
Homo sapiens
population: HEALTHY
age: ADULT
sex: UNKNOWN
food status: HIGH-FAT
Doses

Doses

DosePopulationAdverse events​
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Other AEs: Urinary tract infection, Abdominal pain...
Other AEs:
Urinary tract infection (5%)
Abdominal pain (3%)
Hypersensitivity reaction
Rash
Pruritus
Sources:
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Disc. AE: Flatulence, Diarrhea...
Other AEs: Upper respiratory tract infection, Flatulence...
AEs leading to
discontinuation/dose reduction:
Flatulence (1%)
Diarrhea (1%)
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased (1%)
Increased blood pressure (1%)
Other AEs:
Upper respiratory tract infection (9%)
Flatulence (8%)
Diarrhea (4%)
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased (4%)
Abdominal distension (3%)
Increased blood pressure (3%)
Diarrhea (grade 3, 1%)
Sources:
130 g 1 times / day single, oral
Highest studied dose
Dose: 130 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 130 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 23-48 years
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 23-48 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
74 g 1 times / day single, oral
MTD
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 23-48 years
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 23-48 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
DLT: Diarrhea, Gastrointestinal symptom NOS...
Dose limiting toxicities:
Diarrhea (15 patients)
Gastrointestinal symptom NOS (severe, 4 patients)
Sources:
AEs

AEs

AESignificanceDosePopulation
Hypersensitivity reaction
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Pruritus
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Rash
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Abdominal pain 3%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Urinary tract infection 5%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-87 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-87 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased 1%
Disc. AE
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Diarrhea 1%
Disc. AE
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Flatulence 1%
Disc. AE
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Increased blood pressure 1%
Disc. AE
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Abdominal distension 3%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Increased blood pressure 3%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Blood creatine phosphokinase increased 4%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Diarrhea 4%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Flatulence 8%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Upper respiratory tract infection 9%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Diarrhea grade 3, 1%
20 g 1 times / day steady, oral
Recommended
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: steady
Dose: 20 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
unhealthy, 18-88 years
Health Status: unhealthy
Age Group: 18-88 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Diarrhea 15 patients
DLT, Disc. AE
74 g 1 times / day single, oral
MTD
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 23-48 years
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 23-48 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
Gastrointestinal symptom NOS severe, 4 patients
DLT, Disc. AE
74 g 1 times / day single, oral
MTD
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Route: oral
Route: single
Dose: 74 g, 1 times / day
Sources:
healthy, 23-48 years
Health Status: healthy
Age Group: 23-48 years
Sex: M+F
Sources:
PubMed

PubMed

TitleDatePubMed
Health potential of polyols as sugar replacers, with emphasis on low glycaemic properties.
2003 Dec
The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi triggers apoptosis by target cell sialylation.
2006 Jul
Direct simultaneous determination of eight sweeteners in foods by capillary isotachophoresis.
2006 May
Prevention of first overt episode of hepatic encephalopathy after TIPS: no easy task.
2006 May
Characterization of the bga1-encoded glycoside hydrolase family 35 beta-galactosidase of Hypocrea jecorina with galacto-beta-D-galactanase activity.
2007 Apr
Constipation in adults.
2007 Aug 1
The treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.
2007 Dec
Threshold for transitory diarrhea induced by ingestion of xylitol and lactitol in young male and female adults.
2007 Feb
Anemia impairs small intestinal absorption measured by intestinal permeability in children.
2007 Jan
Effects of lactitol on intestinal microflora and plasma endotoxin in patients with chronic viral hepatitis.
2007 Jan
The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi efficiently transfers alpha-(2-->3)-linked N-glycolylneuraminic acid to terminal beta-galactosyl units.
2007 Nov 26
[A case of recurrent pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis associated with recurrent pneumoperitoneum].
2007 Sep
Effects of low doses of lactitol on faecal microflora, pH, short chain fatty acids and gastrointestinal symptomology.
2007 Sep
Suppressive effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum on transitory diarrhea induced by ingestion of maltitol and lactitol in healthy humans.
2007 Sep
Effect of oral lactulose on clinical and immunohistochemical parameters in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study.
2007 Sep 4
Ecological characterization of the colonic microbiota of normal and diarrheic dogs.
2008
Prophylactic antibiotic treatment is superior to therapy on-demand in experimental necrotising pancreatitis.
2008
Relevance of the diversity among members of the Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase family analyzed with camelids single-domain antibodies.
2008
[Influence of the bifidobacteria and lactitol containing products on lypoperoxidation processes and intestinal microflora].
2008
Rifaximin for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.
2008 Aug
Accuracy of drug advertisements in medical journals under new law regulating the marketing of pharmaceutical products in Switzerland.
2008 Dec 31
Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
2008 Jan 15
Characteristic fragmentation patterns of the trimethylsilyl and trimethylsilyl-oxime derivatives of various saccharides as obtained by gas chromatography coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry.
2008 Jan 4
Roles of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer prevention: Postulated mechanisms and in-vivo evidence.
2008 May
Treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy.
2008 Nov
Intestinal metabolism of weaned piglets fed a typical United States or European diet with or without supplementation of tributyrin and lactitol.
2008 Nov
[Prebiotic lactitol as a component of biopreparation from aerobic bacilli].
2008 Nov-Dec
Sensory properties and color measurements of dietary chocolates with different compositions during storage for up to 360 days.
2009
The role of rifaximin in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea.
2009
Influence of a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and lactitol on healthy elderly: intestinal and immune parameters.
2009 Feb
Standards of medical care in diabetes--2009.
2009 Jan
Suppressive response of confections containing the extractive from leaves of Morus Alba on postprandial blood glucose and insulin in healthy human subjects.
2009 Jul 14
Polyols as filler-binders for disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compaction.
2009 Jun
[Elderly hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia female with portosystemic encephalopathy].
2009 May
Some putative prebiotics increase the severity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice.
2009 Nov 30
Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.
2010
Idiopathic proximal hemimegacolon in an adult woman.
2010 Apr
Successful drug development despite adverse preclinical findings part 2: examples.
2010 Dec
Microbial and bioconversion production of D-xylitol and its detection and application.
2010 Dec 15
Duodenal administered seal oil for patients with subjective food hypersensitivity: an explorative open pilot study.
2010 Dec 6
Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults.
2010 Feb 5
Standards of medical care in diabetes--2010.
2010 Jan
Synthesis of PEGylated lactose analogs for inhibition studies on T.cruzi trans-sialidase.
2010 Jul
Constipation in adults.
2010 Jul 5
Xylo-oligosaccharides and lactitol promote the growth of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus species in pure cultures.
2010 Jun
Synbiotic effects of lactitol and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM™ in a semi-continuous colon fermentation model.
2010 Jun
Recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor pre-screening and screening of stabilizing carbohydrates and polyols.
2010 Mar 15
Lactitol or lactulose in the treatment of chronic constipation: result of a systematic.
2010 Nov
Differences between reversible (self-association) and irreversible aggregation of rHuG-CSF in carbohydrate and polyol formulations.
2010 Nov
Current and emerging strategies for treating hepatic encephalopathy.
2010 Sep
Patents

Sample Use Guides

Initial dose - 20 g at once during 4-5 days. Next, 10 g per day.
Route of Administration: Oral
The species of bifidobacteria, which were detected in vessel of each fermentation after adaptation to an Lactitol 1% (wt/vol): Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. bifidum, B. longum, B. dentium and B. catenulatum. B. angulatum, B. breve and B. infantis were not detected.
Name Type Language
LACTITOL
INCI   INN   MI   WHO-DD  
INN   INCI  
Official Name English
LACTITOL ANHYDROUS
Common Name English
LACTOBIOSIT
Common Name English
MIRUHEN
Common Name English
LACTITOL ACM 50
Common Name English
NSC-231323
Code English
E-966
Code English
IMPORTAL
Brand Name English
4-O-.BETA.-D-GALACTOPYRANOSYL-D-GLUCITOL
Common Name English
LACTITOL [USP-RS]
Common Name English
LACTY (SACCHARIDE)
Common Name English
INS-966
Code English
D-LACTITOL
Common Name English
MILCHEN
Common Name English
LACTITOL [MI]
Common Name English
LACTITOL [WHO-DD]
Common Name English
LACTOSITOL
Common Name English
LACTITOL [INN]
Common Name English
FINLAC DC
Common Name English
LACTOSIT
Common Name English
INS NO.966
Code English
LACTITOL [INCI]
Common Name English
Classification Tree Code System Code
WHO-VATC QA06AD12
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
JECFA EVALUATION INS-966
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
WHO-ATC A06AD12
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
NCI_THESAURUS C283
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS (GSFA) INS-966
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
DSLD 1130 (Number of products:1)
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
Code System Code Type Description
MERCK INDEX
M6659
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY Merck Index
ChEMBL
CHEMBL296306
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB126857
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
HSDB
7970
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EU FOOD ADDITIVES
E 966
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
CAS
585-86-4
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
WIKIPEDIA
LACTITOL
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
MESH
C014635
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EPA CompTox
585-86-4
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
USP_CATALOG
1356687
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY USP-RS
PUBCHEM
157355
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
EVMPD
SUB08385MIG
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
ECHA (EC/EINECS)
209-566-5
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG BANK
DB12942
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
RXCUI
28395
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY RxNorm
JECFA MONOGRAPH
INS-966
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
FDA UNII
L2B0WJF7ZY
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
INN
6414
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
DRUG CENTRAL
1534
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY
NCI_THESAURUS
C81025
Created by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021 , Edited by admin on Sat Jun 26 01:26:32 UTC 2021
PRIMARY